perm filename MICRO.AP[1,LMM]5 blob sn#456977
filedate 1979-07-11 generic text, type T, neo UTF8
n481 0527 09 Apr 79
BC-Sked 1stadd 04-09
UNDATED (Stroud - Sun-Times - BUTCHER) - Skirt steaks are a good
buy because they are lean. However, they are tough. Beat them
with a mallet and they become tender. (550) - a401 FNSPM
UNDATED (Newman - Sun-Times - BOOKS) - Most books about vegetable
cooking are written by vegetarians and give off a rather
medicinal aura. However, Robert Ackert
s book on vegetables just
plain glamorizes them. (800) - a402 FNSPM
UNDATED (Szathmary - Sun-Times - CHEF) - Cauliflower, with its
subtle but distinctive flavor, can be a bountfiul highlight at the
dinner table. Try my oven-baked cauliflower, for example.
(900) - ar03 FNSPM
UNDATED (Sun-Times - MINUTES) d When you are in a hurry canned
convenience items like salmon can make life a lot easier.
(300) - a404 FNSPM
UNDATED (Berland - Sun-Times - THIN) - The truth about the
fad fructose sugar diet is that it adds extra calories to your
meals with no beneficial side effects. (800) - a405 FNSPM
UNDATED (Marsh - Sun-Times - MALE) - If you love those hearty,
filling breakfasts but are afraid to indulge because of the
high calorie count, I have the solution. Have breakfast for dinner.
(800) - a406 FNSPM
UNDATED (Strube - Sun-Times - FRESH) - With ideas such as this
yam-banana casserole the sweet potato is on its way to becoming
a year-around vegetable, instead of just a holiday favorite.
(550) - a407 FNSPM
UNDATED (Bergland - Sun-Times - LAMB) - ''Out like a lion, in
like a lamb'' describes the convenience of microwave cooking vs.
cooking lamb the conventional way. (900) - a408 FNSPM
UNDATED (Upton - Sun-Times - FADS) - Food fashion - what
food is ''in'' and what food is ''out'' - can change as quickly
as the menus at New York's chic restaurants. How do you prevent
a public food faux pas? Read this story. (1,050) - a409, a410 FSNPM
hb (more) 04-09
n034 0905 09 Apr 79
By PAMELA G. HOLLIE
c.1979 N.Y. Times News Service
BURLINGAME, Calif. - In C. Gus Grant's office at the Southern
Pacific Communications Co. hangs a large cartoon showing him
attempting to slay the giant Ma Bell.
''The Bell strategy was to kill us, and our strategy was to fight
back,'' said Grant, whose company is one of just two survivors among
19 onetime challengers of the American Telephone and Telegraph Co.
The 60-year-old president of the Southern Pacific Co. subsidiary
expects a profit this year, the unit's first.
The battles are not over. In its latest move, SPC has filed suit
charging AT&T with violating federal antitrust laws by restraining
trade and by attempting to monopolize communications services.
Most of the suits involving the two have had similar language, and
so far, SPC has been largely successful in its attempts to get a
bigger foothold in the AT&T domain. The trend seems to be in favor of
increased competition, and congressional efforts to overhaul federal
communications law are expected to encourage a more open industry.
Grant expects to see his feisty company, which lost $11 million in
1977 and $2 million in 1978, capture up to 3 percent of AT&T's
long-distance market by 1984. Although that may sound like a modest
share, the total market is expected to be $23 billion in five years.
That would mean revenues for SPC of 10 times its 1978 sales of $50
Southern Pacific Communications, as a specialized common carrier,
provides coast-to-coast private-line communication services for
business, institutional and governmental customers via microwave,
cable and satellite facilities.
SPC offers three separate services: SPRINT for voice transmission,
SPEEDFAX for facsimile service and DATADILE for data transmission. In
addition, a long-term agreement reached with Hitachi Ltd. in February
put SPC in the hardware distribution business, selling terminals
through which an SPC customer can transmit written material over
telephone lines at a rate of less than a minute a page.
Typically, the system is used by businesses for long-distance calls.
A client picks up the standard AT&T phone in, say, Los Angeles, and
is linked into 5he SPC network - a series of line-of-sight receivers
and transmitters placed 30 miles apart - which winds up at a receiver
atop the Empire State Building. From there it is routed through
regular AT&T lines like any other local call.
The SPC system can also help companies control their telephone costs
by providing call records, which AT&T does not do. According to
Grant, such a service to a large New York bank disclosed that 30
percent of all the calls on the network were to Off-Track Betting.
''That number was taken off the network,'' Grant said.
''If we can save General Electric, with its $50 million phone bill
just 10 percent, that's $5 million a year,'' Grant said. ''That's the
kind of service that has caused the business to grow in recent
For six years, SPC and other companies have been fighting with AT&T
over a share of the lucrative $14 billion private business
communications market. Until the late 1960s - a 1968 Federal
Communications Commission decision allowed the attachment of private
terminal devices to telephone lines - private telephone line
companies were unable to gain access to the market.
The FCC ruling hardly cooled the battle. When competitors entered
the long-distance market, Ma Bell dropped its rates to private users
by 43 percent. SPC undercut the industry giant by 10 percent.''That's
known as a courageous strategy,'' Grant said.
Of the 19 companies that tried to get into the business five years
ago, only the MCI Telecommunications Corp. and SPC remain. The
International Telephone and Telegraph Corp. just entered the
competition this year.
n035 0912 09 Apr 79
NYT BURLINGAME: this year.
(ADD FOR CLIENTS DESIRING A LONGER STORY)
Southern Pacific Communications represents a bold diversification
for the Southern Pacific Co., the railroad-based transportation
company with $2.3 billion in sales for 1978, about $4 billion in
fixed assets, 3.8 million acres of Western lands and a majority of
the freight business in the West. The parent has also ventured into
trucking, real estate, pipelines and, most recently, title insurance.
''When the Bell people come around calling us a pipsqueak, I haul
out the charter,'' Grant said. The company's business charter, dated
1862, certifies Southern Pacific as a railroading and communications
company. (AT&T was not incorporated until 1885.)
When SPC was formed in 1970, the communicaions network was built
along the track linking major California cities and the Southwest. At
first, SPC planned only to become a regional carrier. But when Grant,
who had been at Teledyne, General Electric and Ampex, joined the
company in 1973, he found that plan shortsighted. ''Customers don't
like to break their service halfway,'' he said. ''They want
coast-to-coast. After all, 20 percent of all business calls originate
in New York,'' he said. ''Without New York on the network we couldn't
But the eastward thrust had problems. The railroad did not own
property east of Texas, sites were hard to find and environmental and
regulatory approvals for the line-of-sight towers took about three
years to complete. ''Even after the property was cleared, it took one
year to connect Phoenix to Dallas,'' Grant said. ''I began to think I
was going to be too old to enjoy the system at the rate we were
So SPC sank $200 million into acquisitions of existing lines and
permits to link California to New York. In 1974, SPC acquired the
Voice Data assets of United Video in Missouri, Oklahoma and Texas and
purchased the permits of Video Microwave Inc., which connected New
York to Boston via Albany. That same year, the company acquired the
Transportation Microwave Corp., connecting Philadelphia to Buffalo
via New York City.
And in 1976, SPC purchased $53 million of the Data Transmission Co.
assets for $4.9 million in an auction. Those assets brought Chicago,
Houston, St. Louis and Kansas City into the system. This year, SPC
will spend $50 million to connect even more cities. By the end of the
year, SPC expects to link 72 cities, making it the nation's largest
specialized common carrier.
Like a railroad, the network does not begin to pay until the last
mile of track is laid. But in the last year, growth has been
phenomenal, so fast, in fact, that the annual report, mailed to
shareholders last week, underestimated the number of SPC customers by
10,000. ''A year ago we had 1,000 customers. Now we have about
24,000,'' Grant said. ''By the end of the year we expect to have more
than 30,000 customers.''
n005 0559 17 Apr 79
NYT NEW YORK: treating illness.
Because liposomes could be put into the lungs by spray, and would
tend to accumulate in the liver if put into the bloodstream,
liposomes have been considered for treatment of cancers that have
spread to those two vital organs.
Scientists in many research groups have put at least 50 different
therapeutic drugs into liposomes in the hope of using them to deliver
the dose exclusively where it was needed. In some cases, the
liposomes appear to have reached the target but have evidently not
released the drug in a useful way.
The new method, which combines the use of liposomes with
hyperthermia, may help solve the important delivery problem. In the
animal experiments, the region of the tumor is warmed by microwave
radiation to about 107 degrees Fahrenheit, a temperature not quite
high enough to kill cells, but just high enough to change the fatty
material of the liposome from crystalline to liquid form.
The microscopic capsules, each laden with a cargo of the anticancer
drug methotrexate, are injected into the laboratory animal's
bloodstream at a point from which normal blood flow will carry them
directly to the heated area.
Because of the heat and the action of blood plasma on the liposomes
at high temperature, the capsules disintegrate and release the drug
in the immediate area of the tumor.
In the most recent research, it was found that the drug entered the
cancer cells and reached the intended intracellular targets in the
same way it does in conventional cancer treatment.
So far, the scientists have used only small doses of the drug - too
small for therapeutic effect - seeking to prove first that it gets
into the cancer cells and interferes with their internal machinery in
the expected way. The drug evidently does so in high concentration.
After first testing the method ''in vitro'' (in the test tube), the
scientists turned to experiments on mice in which transplanted
cancers were growing.
The drug release was almost total and occurred within seconds. The
results suggest that heavy doses of anticancer drugs could be used to
attack a localized cancer without serious toxic effects elsewhere.
Research on using drug-laden liposomes against leishmaniasis, one of
the world's major health problems, has been conducted at the Walter
Reed Institute for Medical Research in Washington and at research
centers in Britain.
In this disease, there is no need to use heat to release the drug
from the capsules. The parasites that cause the disease infest
scavenger cells in the liver that help rid the blood of foreign
matter, and these cells also engulf and digest liposomes. By this
action, early experiments show, the cells liberate the drugs that
kill the parasites.
This suggests that highly toxic drugs can be carried through the
circulation without doing much harm and only produce their killing
effects when they reach the parasites that are the desired targets. A
roughly similar strategy is being considered for use against malaria,
another of the world's most widespread and devastating public health
n024 0817 17 Apr 79
BC-SCIENCE WATCH 1stadd
NYT UNDATED: or cooling.
Conventional heat pumps use gases that are liquefied by compression,
cooled by a circulating gas or fluid, then allowed to evaporate,
causing chilling. Brown said the transfer of heat from a compressed
gas results in much more energy loss than the transfer of heat from
gadolinium by removal of a magnetic field.
''Our magnetic heat pump is analogous to the Stirling-cycle hot air
engine,'' Brown said, ''in which the same air is shifted back and
forth in a closed system, expanded by heating in one part of the
system and contracted by cooling in another.''
He said a number of American and foreign steel manufacturers, who
use large quantitites of oxygen extracted from air liquefied at low
temperature, have shown interest in the magnetic heat pump.
New Meteorological Tool
A government researcher has devised what he believes to be the most
accurate present method of determining how much moisture is in the
atmosphere at a given point. The device, which employs satellite
signals, may have a variety of meteorological uses, according to the
researcher, Jack B. Snider of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration laboratories in Boulder, Colo.
Snider uses two instruments in making his measurements: a
ground-based antenna, which monitors a continuous signal from a
COMSTAR 3 satellite on a wavelength sensitive to water, and a
microwave radiometer, which measures the temperature of the sky
between the antenna and the satellite.
By correlating the strength of the satellite signal with the
temperature readings, it is possible to determine the amount of water
in a cloud or in the sky along a line between the ground station and
the satellite, Mr. Snider said. The method also can detect water
vapor and ice crystals in the air.
The weather agency said such information could be useful in weather
forecasting, in detecting conditions that could cause icing on
aircraft wings, and in selecting clouds for seeding.
n134 2030 20 Apr 79
BC-EDUC-TECHNOLOGY Adv22 2takes
(FOR RELEASE: SUN. APRIL 22)
By MALCOLM BROWNE
c. 1979 N.Y. Times News Service
NEW YORK - SWOMETHING WENT BADLY WRONG LAST MONTH AT THE NUCLEAR
ELECTRICITY+GENERATING PLANT AT Three Mile Island near Harrisburg,
Pa. No one was injured or killed, but before technicians brought the
malfunctioning reactor under control, central Pennsylvania had
sukfered severe economic loss, and millions of Americans had begun to
wonder who, if anyone, was to be trusted in the debate over the
safety of nuclear energy.
The incident drove home another fear to professional scientists:
that most Americans, including many government leaders, politicians
and news-gatherers, lacked the basic scientific insight to make
intelligent assessments of what was actually happening. ''The
American educational system failed us at Three Mile Island,''
lamented one,, ''and we'd better try to learn something before the
In today's highly technological society every American is faced with
decisions that require scientific judgments - from personal decisions
about the use of saccharin or birth-control pills to social policy on
recombinant DNA, aerosol spray cans or the Concorde.
Many scientists fear that, if anything, the ordinary American is
becoming less equipped than ever to make rational decisions on such
issues. Their fears are essentially twofold.
First, they fear, most people do not have the scientific knowledge
necessary to weigh the ''risks'' that are part of most such
decisions. A housewife, for example, generally has no knowledge of
the nature of the microwave radiation in her oven, much less whether
or not it may be dangerous. A wage earner without special knowledge
has difficulty knowing just how great a threat to his privacy is
posed by computerized record-keeping.
''The human race has never had such bountiful technological benefits
as today. But there has also never been a time when the technological
risks were greater,'' a nuclear physicist said. ''It is impossible to
weigh benefits against risks without knowledge, and in a democratic
society, that means knowledge for everyone, not just the experts.''
The problem was dramatically illustrated at Three Mile Island. An
entire population seemed for a few days to be floundering in a sea of
unanswered questions and anxieties, and in an effort to resolve the
problem, newspapers, radio and television sometimes made
misapprehensions even worse. One news agency described the material
inside the core of the reactor as ''brooding hellfire,'' a phrase one
scientist privately described as ''pandering to panic.''
Many scientists say that such groping for answers was not necessary.
''You don't need to be a Ph.D. physicist to understand the
implications of that accident and to make your own judgments about
published or broadcast news reports,'' said one government scientist
who asked not to be identified. ''A knowledge of the simple gas laws
of Charles, Boyle and Henry would be enough to impart the right
instincts about that well-publicized bubble in the reactor that
caused so much trouble. With knowledge of the inverse-square rule,
anyone could make an informed guess about how distance from the plant
decreases exposure to potential radiation from it. Rudimentary
knowledge of the structure of the atom, of elements and isotopes, and
of the nature of radioactivity would also help.''
n072 1521 28 Apr 79
NYT LOS ANGELES: satellite system.
The question whether the United States can adequately verify Soviet
compliance with the strategic arms agreement has become one of the
most controversial issues in the debate over the projected treaty.
Carter has repeatedly given assurances that the United States has the
ability to do so.
The recent loss of two CIA stations in Iran that monitored Soviet
missile tests during the initial phases of their launchings has
aroused concern among some senators, who have said it is not certain
that the United States could detect any Soviet cheating on an
Concern over the lost Iranian stations has been aggravated by the
disclosure last year that a Central Intelligence employee, William
Kampiles, sold a technical manual about an agency
photo-reconnaissance satellite system called Keyhole to a KGB agent
What the transcripts of the debriefings by the CIA and FBI show and
what has not been made public is that Soviet agents probably had some
information about the Keyhole system more than a year before the
arrest of Kampiles and that the Russians had obtained significant
information about other satellites from the two Californians.
At their trials, Boyce testified that he had been coerced into
spying by Lee, a boyhood friend who was a heroin addict, and Lee said
that Boyce had told him they were working for the CIA to give wrong
information to the Russians.
From April 1975 to December 1976, shortly before they were arrested,
the two men acknowledged selling documents to Soviet agents in Mexico
and in Vienna, for which they received more than $80,000.
Boyce worked as a $140-a-week clerk in a communications vault
transmitting coded messages between the TRW plant and the CIA
headquarters in Langley, Va., and other stations.
At their trials, Justice Department prosecutors alleged that the men
had sold thousands of classified documents to the Russians, but the
only document referred to during the trial was a study involving the
Pyramider, the aborted project intended to relay secret messages from
American spies in hostile foreign countries to the agency's
headquarters at Langley.
What was not disclosed, except in the debriefing transcripts, was
that through the two men the Russians obtained copies of documents
giving technical specifications, operating characteristics and other
details of Rhyolite and Argus satellites over a long period.
Positioned in a stationary orbit about 22,000 miles over Asia,
Rhyolite satellites contain a network of antennas that can intercept
telemetry signals from Soviet missiles as they arc into space and
deliver dummy payloads in Eastern Siberia or in the Pacific Ocean.
The system can also monitor Chinese missile tests.
The satellites also have a number of other functions, including the
ability to eavesdrop on Soviet and Chinese telephonic and radio
n031 1045 29 Apr 79
NYT NEW YORK: the country.
(ADD FOR CLIENTS DESIRING A LONGER STORY)
Moreover, solar manufacturers are developing systems that provide
air conditioning in the summer as well as heat in the winter. The
year-round saving in fuel and electricity would allow such dual
systems to pay for themselves that much faster.
Solar manufacturers say systems designed to heat domestic water are
rapidly displacing water heaters run by electricity, simply because
these systems do operate all year. And proponents assert that if the
cost of running a solar energy system were weighed against the cost
of generating electricity from a new power plant - that is, against a
utility's actual expansion costs instead of the lower, embedded costs
now used to set rates - solar energy would prevail much more often.
Utilities would then have to build fewer power stations, they say,
avoiding what is almost invariably a costly and disruptive process.
Even fewer power stations might be needed if one of the many proven
devices for converting sunlight into electricity became economical
for everyday use.
Sunlight can be converted into electricity directly with
''photovoltaic'' cells, the electronic chips that provide power on
spacecraft, for example, and on some offshore oil platforms. The
conversion can also be done indirectly, with collectors concentrating
and focusing the sunlight on a tank full of liquid, boiling it off to
spin a turbine and generate power.
Researchers are investigating both concepts. But there is sharp
disagreement over the approach society should adopt if and when such
solar power becomes viable. Some say tomorrow's solar electric
systems should be grouped in central power stations, mirroring the
present electricity system.
''The most exciting prospect in solar is direct conversion to
electricity,'' said Dana Moran, assistant to the director of the
Solar Energy Research Institute, a national laboratory set up nearly
two years ago in Golden, Colo., to coordinate the government's solar
research and development program. ''And it seems to me that in the
long run centralized solar power has a lot of advantages.''
Others, however, think that would burden 21st century technology
with 19th-century trappings. They say that if solar cells were
scattered where the power is needed - on the nation's rooftops -
consumers would eventually save the high cost of distribution. The
lines used to deliver electricity now account for a staggering 70
percent of the utility industry's total capital investment.
Although a growing cadre of energy thinkers has embraced this point
of view, the government is trying to cover all the bases and is
moving ahead with plans to build a central solar power demonstration
plant at Barstow, Calif. The Barstow plant will convert sunlight to
Advocates of decentralized solar power believe the best hope lies
not with indirect conversion but with photo cells, and they cringe
when researchers propose that these, too, be used in central power
stations. One scheme calls for satellites the size of football fields
converting solar energy in space and beaming it down by microwaves.
Says Commoner of such schemes: ''It's entirely possible to be in
favor of solar and be stupid at the same time.''
Whether or not they are used in centralized systems, however,
photovoltaic cells must first get cheaper, and the government is
working toward that end. Of the $100 million or so that will go to
the Solar Energy Research Institute this year, more than a fourth
will be for photovoltaics. Most of the effort is aimed at reducing
the cost of making silicon-type cells by more than 95 percent in six
years, to 50 cents per peak watt of capacity.
''Right now, there is not enormous optimism that we'll achieve that
goal,'' said the institute's Moran. ''But maybe we'll reach $1, and
even at $2, a lot of applications start to look promising.''
a216 1220 01 May 79
AM-GSA Probe, Bjt,780
By GWEN FLORIO
Associated Press Writer
BALTIMORE (AP) - Televisions. Radios. Automobile tires. Airplane
tickets, and $300 suits.
Not much individually, but prosecutors say they were received in
exchange for help in bilking the General Services Administration and
that they add up to a multimillion-dollar case of fraud in the federal
government - not just here, but in cities across the country.
So far, federal grand juries in Baltimore alone have indicted 36
persons. Nationwide, there have been 74 indictments and informations
returned, resulting in 53 guilty pleas and 14 trial convictions. Four
persons have yet to enter pleas and the others are awaiting trial.
And prosecutors here say there is no end in sight.
''We will go on until it's over,'' said Daniel Clements, the
assistant U.S. attorney here in charge of the cases. ''This is just
one phase of it. There are other areas being looked into by us
(federal officials in Baltimore). More indictments can be expected.''
The investigations of the federal government's giant housekeeping
agency began in June 1977, after allegations were made that GSA
employees had been bribed with millions of dollars from contractors
working on federal buildings, Clements said.
In addition to the probe here, grand jury investigations are under
way in Washington, New York, Boston and Newark, N.J.
Broken down by GSA regions, 49 indictments or informations have been
returned in the Baltimore-Philadelphia-Washington region, three in
the Boston area, two in New York, three in Atlanta, six in Fort Worth,
three in Denver and one each in San Francisco and Seattle.
Informations, like indictments, are legal accusations, but a grand
jury does not have to be involved in producing them.
The Baltimore indictments charged that GSA employees received cash,
television sets, trips, microwave ovens, radios, tires, suits and
other goods from firms that sold supplies to GSA stores.
In return, the indictments said, the employees - most of them
managers and assistant managers - would acknowledge receipt of
supplies that had not been delivered, and would approve GSA payment
for those supplies to the firms involved.
So far, at least, the rate of prosecutors' success has been high. Of
36 persons indicted here, 27 have entered guilty pleas after
negotiations with prosecutors, and four have been convicted in jury
trials. There have been no acquittals yet; the remaining five
defendants are awaiting trial, with that of William H. Anderson, a GSA
store manager from Washington, scheduled to begin Thursday.
Most of those entering guilty pleas did so to one count of
conspiracy to defraud the U.S. government, Clements said. Those who
chose to plead innocent were tried on additional charges, including
bribery and filing false claims against the government.
''Nationally, the percentage of people that go to jail in
white-collar cases of these types is 23 percent. We're doing
substantially better,'' he said.
Asked why the conviction rate was so high, Clements said: ''I can
only say that we recommended in part of our argument in each case that
government employees who violate the public trust should be
incarcerated.'' Of those convicted, prison has been recommended in
every case, he said, and 20 persons already have received sentences.
Probation was given in only one case, to a person who was not a GSA
employee and who was scheduled for open-heart surgery, Clements said.
Clements said sentences generally range from three to 13 months for
managers and from 20 days to 90 days for assistant managers, but
four-year sentences were given to two store managers who picked trial
rather than pleading guilty.
The Justice Department plans to sue some convicted GSA employees to
recover some of the money, said Mark Sheehan, a department spokesman.
But he added that each case would be considered individually.
Clements said he could not estimate the cost of the GSA scandal.
''We never put a dollar figure on it,'' he said, but adds that
exposing the scandal has paid off. ''Although it may have been
expensive, the real impact appears to be what the GSA is doing to
clean itself up . . . What's happening at the agency more than
compensates for all it's costing us.''
Still, the internal GSA investigation has been slowed by leadership
changes and delays in appointing and confirming an inspector general.
Special counsel Vincent Alto left in October, succeeded by Irwin
Borowski, the choice of then-GSA chief Jay Solomon for the newly
created post of inspector general. But President Carter rejected
Borowski in favor of Justice Department official Kurt Muellenberg, and
he was confirmed for the post just two weeks ago.
Unlike the general counsel, the inspector general has subpoena
power, a tool GSA investigators say is crucial to an effective probe.
The GSA investigators don't seek indictments directly, but do refer
evidence to the Justice Department for possible grand jury review.
a102 0801 04 May 79
PM-Business Mirror, Adv 07,640
For Release PMs Mon May 7
By JOHN CUNNIFF
AP Business Analyst
NEW YORK (AP) - In the kitchens of the great food companies, where
they dwell on technology and convenience, they are contemplating an
anomaly, that the foods of the future might be those of the past.
Take pasta, which begins with grain and water. Every civilization
has developed some form of it from local grains. It's been going on
for more than 5,000 years. And now pasta is being rediscovered.
So are the basic ethnic foods of the Mexicans and Orientals. All
have basic grain-based carbohydrates. They utilize meat, but they
aren't dependent on it. They aren't, as the technologists say,
They are relatively inexpensive too, which adds to their appeal.
Pasta, for example, costs much less than beef, a fact well known to
shoppers. Every time beef prices go up, pasta consumption does too.
The people at the Pillsbury Company, whose future depends on how you
visualize your future, were musing about the changes a few days ago.
''When you go from a primitive society to an advanced society you
get more meat consumption,'' said Malcom McNiven, vice president,
marketing services. And sugar and fats too. Evolution seems to
progress that way.
''But now,'' McNiven observed, ''the trend has tipped.'' He brought
out his charts; in developed nations, they showed, sugar and fat
usage were high but falling. Grains, chicken, fish, vegetables were
In the less developed countries the situation was the opposite. The
charts showed sugar and fat consumption, though low, were growing.
People were moving more heavily into meat and away from pasta.
''Most developed countries might be becoming more like the less
developed,'' said McNiven. They are turning back to basics, although
they are seeking the basics in more convenient, easily prepared form.
This, of course, presents a challenge to the food concerns, who are
perceived as on the frontiers, always cooking up new ideas to test on
a feckless public, always seeking new ways to make an old-fashioned
This is the turf of Dave Ehlin, vice president, business
development. Quickly he seeks to dispel the notion that food companies
dictate what the public eats. The opposite, he says; the public gets
what it wants.
''You can't sell the consumer what he doesn't want,'' he declares.
He and McNiven recall how consumers rejected fabricated foods,
sometimes called analogs. ''You don't see soyburgers today,'' McNiven
In fact, they said, no research being done today at their company
supports analogs, even though - while not trying to jam them down
throats - some companies spent millions promoting the substitutes.
The future, they said, belongs to the consumer; the companies that
suppllies him with food must react to consumer tastes. ''We're
spending more time bringing convenience and naturalness together,''
''In the early 1980s,'' he continued, ''we'll be involved with
improved nutrition - taking things out that peple don't like and
putting in things that might have been lost in processing.''
Packaging is expected to change too as families become smaller.
Fifty percent of households now have only 1 or 2 members; by 1985,
demographers expect the percentage to reach 60. Apartments, kitchens,
pantries will tend to be smaller. And dining patterns will change.
''There is already a decline in the family meal,'' said McNiven.
''And a decline in the elements that make up a meal.'' People seek
quick, easy, available, tasty items. ''If they want a big meal they go
To adjust, food concerns are developing the modular meal, made up of
items easily combined to meet individual tastes and the dining times
of family members. The microwave oven will speed them on their way.
All this, remember, because moderns are in the process of moving
toward a more advanced society. Or is it the other way around? We are,
you'll recall, returning to the basics as well. That's we're we
End Adv Pms Mon, May 7
a289 1813 04 May 79
MOSCOW (AP) - Microwave radiation beamed at the U.S. Embassy by the
Soviets has been reduced to an extraordinary low level, authoritative
sources said Friday.
The Soviet action was seen by some observers as a step to improve
the atmosphere between the two countries before their leaders meet at
a summit soon to sign a new strategic arms limitation agreement. The
United States repeatedly protested the radiation.
The sources said electronic checks showed that since February a
Soviet transmitter situated south of the embassy was operating less
than 10 hours a week.
This figure compares with 40 hours a week when the site south of the
embassy was running in tandem with another site in a 10-story
building directly across Tchaikovsky Street from the embassy.
The building was hit by a spectacular blaze in January that reduced
the transmitter site - a small, shack-like structure on the roof - to
a charred ruin. It has not been put back in operation, the sources
Thet said readings on unscreened windows ranged from 0.03 to 0.025
microwatts per square centimeter. The upper floors of the embassy
where offices are located have metal screens designed to block
The specific purpose of the beams has never been disclosed. U.S.
officials have theorized they could be intended either to jam American
electronic intelligence-gathering equipment or to trigger Soviet
surveillance devices planted within the embassy.
n038 0937 09 May 79
BC-TV TONIGHT 2takes
(The N.Y. Times Special Feature material: for use by special
By BERNIE HARRISON
c. 1979 Washington Star Syndicate
WASHINGTON - After watching one new dumb sitcom after another, and
there's another Thursday night called ''Hizzoner,'' (NBC at 8), you
can't fault the thesis of ''The Chevy Chase National Humor Test''
special (NBC at 9). Somebody out there ought to be trying to find out
what makes people laugh.
But if you're giggling already, to the idea of Chevy and his gaggle
of guests, taking a Humor Survival Test, or visiting a scientific
research center where rats are studied to find out why people laugh,
or the prospect of taking multiple choice humor tests, you're way
The treatment is labored; the result largely and consistently
unfunny, despite rewarding moments - Marty Mull, as a ''professional
comedian,'' trying to define humor with the aid of admirers, for
You can make up your own multiple choce test of what's missing: like
(a) surprise (b) invention (c) sound skit construction (d) laughs or
(e) all four. I check all four.
Along the way, you'll find Pam Dawber in a love scene with Chevy,
after which he's dropped into the National Humor Forest, and Uncle
Miltie as a celebrity loan officer at a bank.
''Hizzoner'' (NBC at 8). David Huddleston is no lightweight. He's
big, likable, and adept at delivering his lines, but we've got one
funny mayor already - Teddy Paul, of ''Carter Country'' and here's
David, running a midwestern city he loves, and as a widower, trying
to bring up two children he loves, the daughter, an active civil
rights attorney, the son, an eternal truth-seeker who belongs to a
Wilderness Cult. The mayor's cup is inclined to runneth over,
predictably. That's Kathy Cronkite, the apple of Walter's eye, as
daughter Annie, and she's the problem Thursday night.
The Documentary Beat
''Nova'' (Public TV at 8). Another look at one theory of the
Universe's beginnings - and those faint, but ever-present microwave
signals in space, the most distant signals detected by man. Was there
a big bang? Guest, physicist Philip Morrison, of MIT.
n637 0350 16 May 79
Attention: Home, feature, editors. The following Homelife Feature
is a sidebar to the ''Payback'' story.
(c) 1979 Chicago Sun-Times
These appliance energy costs are based on 4.9 cents per kilowatt
hour (1,000 watts of electricity for one hour) and 27 cents per
therm (one therm of natural gas when burned will produce 100,000
BTU's of heat energy). Rates will vary considerably depending
upon region, energy supplier and season.
X X X
Air conditioner, central, 36,000 BTUs per hour (EER 7), 24.5
cents per hour.
Air conditioner, room, 12,000 BTUs per hour, (EER 8), 7.5 cents
Coffeemaker, electric, 1 cent per brew.
clothes dryer, electric 14.5 cents per load.
Clothes dryer, gas with electric ignition, 6 cents per load.
Dishwasher, normal cycle, 5 cents per load.
Hot water for dishwater: by electrical heat, 14.5 cents per
load, by gas heat 4.5 cents per load.
Lighting, household, 14 cents per day.
Freezer, frostless, (15 cubic feet), 24.5 cents a day.
Freezer manual defrost (15 cubic feet), 14.5 cents per day.
Frying pan, electric, 2.5 cents per hour.
Microwave oven (5 min.) 1/2 cent per use.
Oven, electric, (self-cleaning) 29.5 cents per clean.
Oven, gas, (self-cleaning), 13.5 cents per clean.
Range, electric, 5 cents per meal.
Range, gas, total usage 2.5 cents per meal, pilot light usage,
(800 BTU per hour) 5.5 cents per day.
Refrigerator, frostless, (16 cubic feet) 24.5 cents per day.
Refrigerator, manual, (10 cubic feet), 10 cents per day.
Toaster (2-slice) 1/2 cent per day.
Toaster-oven, electric portable, 2.5 cents per hour.
TV, black and white, 1/2 cent per hour.
TV, color 1.5 cents per hour.
Washing machine, cold water, 1 cent per load, electricity for
hot water 29.5 cents per load, gas required for hot water, 9
cents per load.
jj 05-16 (Endit CST)
n043 1033 24 May 79
BC-TV TONIGHT Adv27 2takes
(FOR RELEASE SUN. MAY 27)
The N.Y. Times Special Feature material: for use by special
By BERNIE HARRISON
c. 1979 Washington Star Syndicate
WASHINGTON - Forget about the gas crunch, if you can. ABC is at it,
full throttle, on both sides of the Atlantic, with same-day coverage
of the Grand Prix of Monaco, via satellite, on ''Wide World of
Sports'' (at 4:30), to the '500' classic at Indianapolis (at 9),
weather permitting, of course.
For racing buffs, the ABC coverage at Indy includes more cameras
than ever (19), covering the action on the 2 1/2 mile course and in the
pits, but the problem, for producers Chuck Howard and Bob Goodrich,
and their colleagues, hasn't changed. They're racing the clock from
around noon on, when the classic gets under way, in a Time Trial of
their own, editing the 3 1/2 hours of the race (what with yellow flags
and delays) down to two hours for the evening rerun, and integrating
the pit action and interviews, the colorful crowd, and tapes of past
Indy happenings, without losing sight of the main story. Not easy.
The new touch in the coverage this year, a support balloon, so that
handheld cameras in the pits can record the happenings via microwave
and relay the coverage back.
If you're not all choked up by this, there are some dandy
alternatives Sunday night, for which you can thank the hyped-up
network competition during May, a ratings ''sweeps'' month. We'd pick
the real-life dramatization, ''Dummy'' (CBS at 9) - very, very good,
and stunningly performed, but then there's ''The Best Place to Be,''
Part 1 of a two-parter (NBC at 9), a glossy drama whipped up by Ross
Hunter from a Helen Van Slyke best-seller, with a cast led by Donna
Reed, Efrem Zimbalist Jr., and Betty White. Picking one won't be easy
The Sunday Press
The headliners: Stuart Eizenstat, key Carter aide, on domestic
affairs and policy, on ''Face the Nation'' (CBS at 11:30); Georgi
Areatov, SALT spokesman for the Soviet Union on ''Issues and
Answers'' (ABC at noon), Rep. John Dingell, D-Mich., chairman of the
subcommittee on energy and power, on ''Meet the Press'' (NBC at
12:30); Dr. Robert Hill (National Urban League) and Richard Hamilton
(Black Veterans) on ''America's Black Forum'' (ABC at 1), and ''Merit
System for Judges'' is the topic on ''Firing Line'' (Public TV at 5).
The magazine beat: ''Sixty Minutes'' (CBS at 7) is all reruns: Mike
Wallace on community anti-crime patrols; Dan Rather on the
handicapped who want to earn a living, and Morley Safer's visit to
the strange and distant Maldive Islands, in the Indian Ocean.
''Dummy'' (CBS at 9). LeVar Burton plays the 20-year-old illiterate
deaf mute, charged on circumstantial evidence with the murder of a
prostitute; Paul Sorvino plays his court-appointed lawyer. Ernest
Tidyman wrote the script from his non-fiction book by the same title,
and it's a first-rate one, focusing on the lawyer's efforts to get
through to his client, and establish a relationship of trust, against
the background of frustration - and indifference in the courts during
the five years it took him to get the case to trial. Burton grows in
skill each time out; he's marvelous in this. So is Sorvino. Frank
Perry directed - a pro effort all the way.
a627 2037 24 May 79
AM-Regulators-FDA, Adv 27-2 Takes,760-1,520
For Release Sun May 27
The New Regulators:
The FDA: The Bad News Agency
Eds: This is another in a periodic series of stories on ''The New
Regulators'' in Washington - who they are, what they are doing
differently and how they are viewed by those they regulate.
By MIKE FEINSILBER
Associated Press Writer
WASHINGTON (AP) - People used to say, ''Everything I want to do is
illegal, immoral or fattening.''
Now they add, ''Or causes cancer.''
And they don't necessarily smile when they say it.
The world has become more complicated. And people resent it when
they are told that something they've been doing or eating or using for
years is dangerous.
For the last two years, Donald Kennedy, who taught biology at
Stanford University for 20 years, has been the heavy in this situation
- the national medicine man whose tidings are usually bad: ''This
will kill you; that causes cancer; this pill is no cure.''
He runs the Food and Drug Administration. He administers a law
requiring that food be ''safe and wholesome'' and drugs be ''safe and
Back in 1938, when the law was passed, no one anticipated what
trouble it would cause.
The country hadn't gone though the cigarette experience, hadn't
learned that a substance enjoyed habitually, almost absent-mindedly,
by millions of people could wind up killing a significant number of
Nor is food the simple what-you-see-is-what-you-eat stuff it was
back when the FDA's pedecessor, the Bureau of Chemistry in the
Agriculture Department, went around inspecting sidewalk pushcarts to
make sure the fruit had been washed.
Now, with a budget of $300 million and a staff of 7,500, the FDA is
deeply involved in the everyday lives of Americans.
It regulates food, drugs, vaccines, cosmetics and devices ranging
from pacemakers to microwave ovens.
It keeps track of what Kennedy calls ''the fruits of the revolution
in synthetic organic chemistry'' - the chemicals that are much more a
part of America's diet than mom's apple pie ever was.
That's no small job. The FDA is still checking out compounds in the
food supply that were being used when the agency was created, and
Kennedy is not entirely sure that a few more of them may not turn out
toxic or cancerous.
''I think there are going to be a few more surprises,'' he says,
''but there is nothing like cigarettes out there.''
It is when the FDA finds a cancer-causing substance in the food
supply that its troubles start.
The agency survived an uproar a few years ago when it banned Red Dye
No. 2, but it had its wrists slapped when it tried, under Kennedy, to
take saccharin away.
Now, because of the economic interests involved, an intense debate
is raging over whether to ban nitrites which are used as coloring and
flavoring agents and preservatives in bacon, hot dogs and other
Eight months have passed since Kennedy told Congress, ''It appears
highly likely that nitrite causes cancer.''
Because of the disruptions that would occur if nitrites are banned,
a painstaking review of the science that went into that conclusion is
Americans don't want to give up hot dogs. And Americans wanted
non-fattening soft drinks, no matter what cancers saccharin caused in
mice in Canada.
So Congress overruled Kennedy and imposed a year's moratorium on his
intended ban on saccharine.
The moratorium has expired and Congress is being asked to extend it.
FDA opposes an extention, but even if Congress does not continue the
moratorium it will take 15 to 20 months for the FDA to repeat the
scientific steps and the hearing process required befoe a ban can be
put into effect.
Kennedy says he accepts the saccharin morratorium with equanimity
even though he thinks Congress may have responded less to the voice of
an incensed public than to ''a very heavily financed and self-serving
effort by thesoft drink industry to get the public aroused.''
It may be because he is leaving government June 30 - to return to
Stanford as vice president for academic affairs, an offer he says he
couldn't resist - that he can be so philosphical about such setbacks.
Elsewhere in Washington the question of how to respond to a public
that wants protection but decries interference is at the heart of a
debate over the role of the regulator and the future of regulation.
The public mood seems to say, ''Lay off.'' Politicians respond with
much talk about ''deregulation.'' Yet when something like Three Mile
Island or the Love Canal comes along, the question becomes whether
the government had regulated enough and well enough.
Kennedy says that if the balance is constantly being adjusted
between regulation and relaxation, as Congress ''keeps fine tuning our
national policy,'' that is okay with him.
n051 1141 29 May 79
Suggested for weekend use
By VICTOR WILSON
Newhouse News Service
WASHINGTON - Vance Muse is a bearded, bespectacled, gentle writer
who believes he has survived up to now only by stretching caution,
prudence and wariness ot the limit.
He is convinced that everything, EVERYTHING, is out to get you -
even your favorite food, sport, hobby and bed.
Naturally, one trembles at black widow spiders, lightning, Red Dye
No. 2 and terrorists. But how about oleanders, soccer fans, manhood,
umbrellas and CB radios? All can hurt, maim or kill, Muse warns - as
can bacon, retirement, yoga and ballpoint pens.
So he has written ''Don't Buy a Car Made on Monday'' (Times Books,
$8.95), which he subtitles ''An Arbitrary Encyclopedia of Things to
be Afraid of.''
His aim, Muse writes, is to pinpoint both obvious and obscure
dangers, vague rumblings that have bothered you for years, and fears
that make you seem paranoid. He promises to show you it's not to late
to bone up on your founded fears. He guides you away from things you
shouldn't touch, tells you what you shouldn't do and how not to do it.
Whether you wave a white flag with dignified resignation or total
panic, he declares, the important thing is to surrender. Here are
some of Muse's pointed pointers:
- Arguing: Acquiesce, you'll live longer. A murder is committed
every 28 minutes; 62 percent result from arguing.
- Cannibalism: Avoid. The way the food industry is going, it may
make a big comeback.
- Pesticides: We're in a fine fix; here is a solution that's worse
than the problem.
- Credit bureaus: Even a wrong report may mean being unable to
purchase such basics as smoke alarms, microwave and X-ray shields,
gas masks and bomb shelters.
- Digital timepieces: These devices are making obsolete generations
of people who can tell time.
- Some-eating: Beware! Big-city snow contains known human
carcinogens from fossil fuel combustion.
- Fasting: Deprived of regular deliveries, the body feeds on itself.
Only the enormously fat can afford this.
- Florida: Among the state's unpleasant aliens are alligators,
piranhas, poisonous toads, wild cats, disease-carrying snails and
- A full moon: Passionate crime peaks with this satellite; it allows
murderers a clearer view of their victims.
- Ice: Tame ice, as in cubes, is a safe, sane, essential element.
Wild ice, as in glaciers, ice sheets and 'bergs - avoid.
- Jogging: At 15,000 bangs per hour, feet suffer fallen arches, torn
ligaments, etc., etc., etc. Joggers also are threatened by concrete
surfaces, wise-acre motorists and territorial dogs.
- MArch: Beware the Ides of March, yes; but also the fortnight
preceding and following.
- Oleanders: Hotmgs pierced on oleander sticks will guarantee that
no one returns from the weenie roast.
- Pay toilets: Jammed doors have entrapped users while other patrons
have tumbled on tile floors.fered contusions trying to
evacuate vending stalls.
- suspenders: Among many reasons not to war them is they give
hand-holds to attackers, propellors and fast-moving trains.
- Umbrellas: Their basic design led to invention oi,jachutes,
which bear their own bad news.
''There are, of course, a few harmless pursuits about,'' Muse
concedes, ''like oatmeal, string-collecting and checkers. But the
inventory of things to avoid, flee and fear is expanding.
''So the least you can do,'' he advises, ''is to develop a knowing
relationship with your animate and inanimate adversaries. How and why
you're endangered as never before is what this book endeavors to
JG END WILSON
n999 0703 31 May 79
. . .
r f czczvtuiv
c. 1979 N.Y. Times News Service
OAKLAND, Calif. - Safeway Stores, the nation's largest retail food
chain, is taking a hard look at its marketing strategy in the wake of
a first-quarter slump that saw sales growth fall below the inflation
rate and earnings slip to 88 cents a share from 97 cents.
''Since the first-quarter earnings are historically the lowest in
the year, a 9-cent decline, although not welcome, was not viewed as a
catastrophe,'' William S. Mitchell, Safeway's chairman, told
shareholders at the company's annual meeting earlier this month.
He continued: ''What was more serious, in my opinion, was the sales
increase of only 7.6 percent. In this respect, we failed to keep pace
with inflation, which as you know has reportedly been running in
excess of 10 percent.''
The outlook is darkened by the fact that the sales slippage came
despite the opening of 111 new stores last year, Mitchell added in an
interview at Safeway headquarters here.
Meanwhile, some of Safeway's competitiors, notably the No. 2 chain,
the Kroger Company, posted sales increases on the order of 15
percent. Safeway's stock has fallen from a 12-month high of $42 a
share to just over $35 a share currently.
As a result of its failure to meet sales expectations, the company
is planning renewed empahsis on price competition as a way of wooing
shoppers back to its stores.
The root of Safeway's problem appears to be a misreading of the
public's reaction to constantly increasing food prices.
Throughout 1978, Safeway - most of whose locations are west of the
Mississippi - concentrated on building bigger stores and selling more
nonfood items, including television sets and microwave ovens, in some
areas. It drew customers by offering a miniature bingo card at the
checkout counters. It was possible to win $100 or more if the right
combination of numbers appeared on the card when a coating that
concealed them was scratched off.
The strategy paid off for most of the year, permitting Safeway to
report an 11.6 percent sales increase. Safeway's 1978 sales reached
$12.5 billion, a company peak.
''You could see their sales bump up every time they hit the game,''
said Thomas W. King of the Alpha Beta Co., whose 299 food stores
compete with Safeway in California and Arizona.
But Safeway was not necessarily seen as the cheapest place to buy
food. Its policy is to match the prices of competitors but, in
general, not to undercut them significantly. And games, as both King
and Safeway executives pointed out, may bring customers in for a
while but may not build a long-term loyalty.
''Safeway continued the game program too long last year and into
this year while the customer was becoming more price-conscious,''
said Robert J. Schweich, a food-chain analyst with Wertheim & Company
in New York. ''As a result, they lost market share.''
a279 1932 01 Jun 79
By LAWRENCE L. KNUTSON
Associated Press Writer
WASHINGTON (AP) - Employees of the U.S. Embassy in Moscow suffered
no health problems that can be traced to low-level radiation used in a
25-year Soviet eavesdropping campaign, the staff of the Senate
Commerce Committee said Friday.
However, the staff also said the State Department was not justified
in failing to tell embassy employees about exposure to the radiation
until 1976, more than two decades after U.S. officials discovered it
''In spite of elements of recognized uncertainty, the weight of the
findings ... supports the conclusion that government employees did
not encounter health hazards traceable to their exposure for various
periods to microwave radiation levels,'' the staff report said.
It said scientific studies between 1976 and 1978 ''indicate that
microwave radiation of the nature, duration and intensity experienced
by Moscow embassy and dependents did not cause health effects
detectable either through blood cell analysis, morbidity analysis or
The study showed the rate of cancer among Moscow embassy employees
was less than among control groups not exposed to microwaves, the
report said. It added that the studies could not prove whether any
specific case of cancer was caused by the radiation, but that ''there
is no known and proven mechanism by which microwave radiation can
cause such a biological effect.''
The discovery that the Soviets were using low-level microwave
radiation to listen in on embassy conversations dates to 1953. But
embassy employees were not told until early 1976 when a decision was
made to install protective screening over the chancery.
The staff report said the medical office of the State Department
believed knowledge of the radiation ''would unnecessarily add another
source of uneasiness or tension to the lives of Moscow embassy
But the staff concluded, ''The employees should have been promptly
told of the situation.''
The report noted that doctors at times withhold information in the
interests of a patient but added, ''This substitution of a
doctor-patient relationship for a employer-employee relationship is
not defensible, regardless of the outcome of the studies'' into
possible health effects of the radiation.
Sen. Howard Cannon, D-Nev., the committee chairman, said the staff
analysis was undertaken because of concern by members of Congress and
former and present State Department employees assigned to the
He noted that the intensity of the radiation was within levels
permissible in the Soviet Union ''and far below the levels considered
acceptable in the United States.''
a008 2240 01 Jun 79
WASHINGTON (AP) - The Transportation Department has begun
investigating some Uniroyal steel-belted radial tires for possible
safety defects after receiving consumer complaints and information
The department's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration said
Friday the probe will focus on the larger size tires in Uniroyal's
PR6 line and all sizes in the PR5 line made in 1975 and 1976. The PR6
tires include sizes HR78 and those with larger JR and LR size
The safety agency said it opened the inquiry after Uniroyal reported
receiving 538 complaints in 1978, alleging blowouts or other failures
on PR5 and PR6 tires made since 1975. The agency also said it is
aware of at least 30 accidents involving 10 injuries and one death,
allegedly caused by failure of the tires.
WASHINGTON (AP) - The Transportation Department is ordering the Ford
Motor Co. to retest for a defect in the fuel systems of 1970-1973
Mavericks and 1971-1973 Mercury Comets.
The department notified the automaker Friday it has ordered a retest
of the suspected defect and cautioned that its action ''should not be
construed as a conclusion that there is no defect in the vehicles.''
Joan Claybrook, head of the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration, told Ford in a letter that the Mavericks whose fuel
systems failed during investigative crash testing had previously
undergone major repairs. A Ford spokesman said the company believes
the original finding was ''inappropriate'' and that the withdrawal of
it is ''proper.''
WASHINGTON (AP) - A Senate committee says U.S. Embassy employees in
Moscow suffered no health problems that can be traced to low-level
radiation aimed at the building in a 25-year Soviet eavesdropping
But a Senate Commerce Committee staff report said Friday the State
Department was not justified in failing to tell embassy employees
about exposure to the radiation until 1976, more than two decades
after U.S. officials discovered it in 1953.
The report said scientific studies between 1976 and 1978 ''indicate
that microwave radiation . . . experienced by (the) Moscow embassy
and dependents did not cause health effects detectable either through
blood cell analysis, morbidity analysis or mortality analysis.''
WASHINGTON (AP) - New regulations approved by the Interstate
Commerce Commission will allow trucking companies to pass along to
customers increased diesel fuel costs.
The ICC order issued Friday allows carriers to file surcharges to
recover increased fuel costs on 10 working days' notice. That is a
reduction from an earlier ruling which allowed carriers to pass on
higher fuel costs if a 30-day notice was given the ICC.
The ruling said trucking companies must pass on directly to
individual truckers 100 percent of the fuel cost recovered. It
specified that the truckers' employers cannot retain any of the money.
WASHINGTON (AP) - The Energy Department has proposed regulations to
limit heating and cooling of private, non-residential buildings if
President Carter should declare an energy emergency.
About 5 million buildings would be subject to the requirements of
the proposal announced Friday, but there would be exceptions for
hospitals and other health-care facilities, lodgings, elementary and
nursery schools and day-care centers and buildings with contents
requiring controlled environmental conditions.
a213 1127 06 Jun 79
AM-Flight Safety, Bjt,480
By RANDOLPH E. SCHMID
Associated Press Writer
WASHINGTON (AP) - Spectacular tragedies like those in Chicago and
San Diego focus attention on the dangers of flight, but the steady,
year-by-year decline in airline accidents has received less notice.
Improvements in engines, instruments, air traffic control, crew
training and airplanes themselves have contributed to the
statistically proven, steady increase in airline safety.
The Chicago-based National Safety Council considers commercial
airlines the safest form of transportation.
The council said scheduled airlines in 1977 reported 0.04 deaths per
100 million passenger miles. Railroads reported 0.05 deaths; buses,
0.13 deaths; and passenger automobiles, 1.33 deaths per 100 million
William G. Osmun, director of technical information for the Air
Transport Association, which represents commercial airlines, said
introduction of turbine engines has contributed to safety. The
turbines are ''certainly better than the piston engine ever was,'' he
Dave Kelly, of the National Transportation Safety Board, said
commercial airliners in the United States carried 286 million
passengers last year, 32 million more than in 1977. They reported 25
mishaps, the lowest number on record. Six of the accidents involved
Ten years earlier, commercial airliners carried a much smaller
volume of traffic, but were involved in 71 accidents, 15 of them
causing fatalities, he said.
During the last decade, a series of human and technical improvements
occurred, supported by the ATA, the Air Line Pilots Association, the
Federal Aviation Administration, the NTSB and the aerospace industry.
The pilots' group has been among the most vocal safety advocates and
currently is urging adoption of new measures, including tighter
standards for approving aircraft, installation of airport microwave
landing guidance systems, addition of a third pilot to flight crews
and easing of major airport congestion by decreasing private plane
Experts, from FAA officials to pilots' association president J.J.
O'Donnell, express concern about human error.
''The potential for human error will always be present, but it can
and must be held to an absolute minimum,'' O'Donnell said.
Crew training has become ''the most sophisticated and advanced
industrial training in the United States,'' said Osmun.
New types of flight simulators not only can duplicate airplane
flying maneuvers, but also copy landing and takeoff procedures, the
most hazardous aspects of a flight, experts say.
Vastly improved runway lighting and electronic aides help improve
Moreover, back-up equipment is commonplace for essential aircraft
mechanisms. The Boeing 747, for example, has four independent
n068 1305 06 Jun 79
NYT NEW YORK: the kitchen.
''I love to cook,'' she said. ''The kitchen is designed for my
needs. That's why there are all those pull-out shelves,'' she said,
referring to the shelves mounted on ball bearings for easy access.
''There is no way I'm going to scrounge around in the dark with my
backside sticking out.''
Miss Bennett said that she is every bit as enthusiastic as Davidson
about ''the systems'' that were included in this apartment. There is
an electrical system that keeps them independent of the building and
can heat the building-supplied hot water up to a brisk 170 degrees.
There is a heating and air-conditioning system that both humidifies
the air and replaces it with fresh air six times a day. Such a boon
to cleanliness is no accident, for Davidson and Miss Bennett are
fastidious when it comes to dust, grease and fingerprints.
Another system is the $11,000 sound setup. Davidson said that he
engaged ''the top disco d.j. in the country'' to install four
200-pound speakers that are taller than Miss Bennett, a reel-to-reel
tape deck, a pre-amplifier and amplifiers, a noise reduction system,
a sound expander, a tuner, a frequency equalizer and a turntable.
''It's the best sound system in anyone's house in New York City,''
Davidson contends. ''We could damage the foundation of the building
if we put it on full power.''
With a kitchen equipped with a restuarant-size, stainless steel,
double-door refrigerator, a microwave oven, a warming oven and a
regular self-cleaning oven, as well as their sound system, Davidson
and Miss Bennett acknowledged that they are well set up for
entertaining. They even own a pinball machine. Yet, they said, they
don't entertain very often.
For one thing, they are waiting for the chrome, glass and white
leather dining table and chairs. Then, Davidson works long and hard.
''I work 20 hours a day. I don't ask anything to be given to me.
Nothing was ever handed to me,'' he said. He remarked that his
deceased father, a truck driver, taught him respect for property. ''I
like everything to be comfortable for me because I earn it,'' he said.
So Davidson and Miss Bennett allow themselves the indulgence of an
occasional hockey game, or dinner at a restaurant where they are
known, or the pleasure of a few friends over for dinner.
But they don't mind being quietly at home. Davidson actually enjoys
cleaning the fingerprints off the apartment's many mirrored surfaces
and prefers doing it himself, he said. And they subscribe to a lot of
''We're magazine people,'' Davidson said, explaining the absence of
books in the rows of new shelves above his bed. Instead, they are
filled with stuffed animals. ''They are all Stieff. Every one. Stieff
is the best,'' he said.
Still and all, they did throw a humdinger of a party last New Year's
to celebrate moving into the apartment. Not surprisingly, Davidson
was at pains to see it was done right.
''It was like a super, super party. They don't do it that way any
more,'' he said. ''This was with style - the party of the year with
15 in to help. I started with two armed guards downstairs because I
knew word would get out and I didn't want a lot of crashers. There
were six waiters, a coat-checking concession and our caterer was the
caterer who did Queen Elizabeth for the Bicentennial. We had two
menus - finger foods from 9 to 12:15. Then after 12:15 more
substantial things.'' Davidson glowed at the memory. ''The thank-you
letters really summed it up,'' he said. '' 'Truly the best party
we've ever attended, they all said ....' ''
n999 0344 07 Jun 79
. . .uu
a k ryrbylryr
BC-BARTLETT 1stadd 6-7
1stadd Bartlett x x x American bases.
These inflammatory broadcasts have been monitored and
translated. After the Iranian experience, this hard evidence
of Soviet destabilization tactics against a NATO ally will be
powerful ammunition in the hands of a Senate opponent of
SALT. Some Carter officials feel the Soviets should be
bluntly advised to terminate these broadcasts, if they
seriously want a treaty.
The Soviet leaders begin to show a dawning awareness
that their hopes for a treaty depend on how their global
actions are judged by 100 U.S. senators. The Russians have
grudgingly released a few prominent dissidents, have allowed
increased Jewish emigration, and have halted the barrage of
microwave radiation against the U.S. embassy in Moscow.
White House aides who are counting undecided votes in
the Senate want Carter to press Brezhnev in Vienna for more
substantial gestures. A Soviet decision not to veto the
retention of the UN emergency force in the Sinai, a voluntary
removal of MIG-23s from Cuba, restraint in arming the
Rhodesian guerrillas, and the beginning of a phased
withdrawal of Cuban troops from Africa would do much to
improve the atmosphere.
Most important, the Soviets will need to avoid public
boasting that they have manipulated the SALT negotiating
process to force d) decisive change in tl balance of
power. Such a boast appeared recently in a Soviet journal,
''Questions of History,'' where a senior Soviet official
gloated over the success of their SALT negotiating tactics
and declared, ''The political significance of this victory of
the Soviet Union in the arms race unleashed against it can
hardly be overevaluated.''
Such boasting will do little to reassure those senators
who are not yet convinced that the treaty will imporve the
prospects of peace.
fns (endit Bartlett) 6-7
Release Friday, June 8
n999 0050 08 Jun 79
. . .
r c ryrczcqyv
Attention: Feature editors. Following is a column of homemakers tips.
By Dorsey Connors
1979 Chicago Sun-Times
Food prices are expected to leap another 10 per cent this year,
according to Money magazine. However, the magazine reports, ''Grocery
bills can be trimmed as much as 20 per cent by following up ads for
bargains, shopping in no-frills stores, using coupons and sampling
There are few bargains around these days, but the magazine notes
coffee is down 25 per cent, overseas phone calls are down 25 per cent
and Perrier is down as much as 47 per cent. If youve longed for a
microwave oven, you'll be happy to know Amanas is down 17 per cent.
x x x
There is no longer any excuse for a family to be deprived of the
life-saving protection of a smoke detector. Prices are down more than
50 per cent in some instances because of keen competition. You can
buy one for as little as $12.
And it could be the most important purchase of your life. The new
smoke detectors must undergo a smoldering smoke test before being
listed by Underwriters Laboratory. This became effective June 1. It
increases the sensitivity of the unit. I am constantly amazed by the
number of people who still do not have smoke detectors in their
homes. Buy one today. If your home is large, buy several. Mount them
just outside the bedrooms on the hall ceiling.
Kudos to Burger King Corp., which has instituted a national public
education program to teach children what to do in case of fire.
Schools and shopping malls across the country will feature a ''Hazard
House'' that simulates a house on fire. Children are directed to
''stop, drop and roll'' and to crawl to an exit. Since smoke rises,
crawling allows a person to breath the clearer air at floor level.
x x x
Dear Dorsey: My idea for a bridal-shower gift is a very practical
but always appreciated one. Its a galvanized scrub pail with all the
basic cleaning needs that the new bride will need for that initial
cleaning of the new home. Include a scrub brush, cleaning and dusting
cloths, a chamois, sponges and a squeegee along with commercial
cleaners such as cleansing powder, detergent, furniture polish,
window cleaner, etc. I tape a pretty gift-wrapping paper around the
pail, wind paper ribbon around the handle and top it off with a
pretty bow.--MARY WOLKOBER
x x x
Dear Dorsey: We have cut our entertaining budget considerably by
combining parties. We celebrated two birthdays plus a christening at
the same party. On Mothers Day, we combined the celebration with a
first communion party, a birthday and a hospital employes award.
Fathers Day will also be a christening and a birthday celebration.
Everyone helps with the food and the work and we all have a very good
time. -- MARY STOK
Good, economical thinking, especially for the large family. Thanks,
x x x
''Save Time, Save Money, Save Yourself,'' Dorseys book containing
hundreds of household tips, is a welcome gift for the new or
experienced homemaker. Send $5.95 plus $1 for and handling to Dorsey
Connors, P.O. Box 36, Hinsdale, Ill. 60521.
a080 0729 13 Jun 79
PM-Urban Legends, Adv 20,520
For Release PMs Wed June 20
American Style - City Faces: Tall Tales Among the Skyscrapers
With Laserphoto Cartoon
By LEE MITGANG
AP Urban Affairs Writer
Everyone knows stories like these: someone claims to find a mouse in
a pop bottle. Or you read somewhere or other about worms in fast food
burgers, or effervescent candy that makes your stomach explode.
Gary Fine, a professor of sociology at the University of Minnesota,
collects and studies hundreds of these tall tales. He calls them
''urban belief legends.''
Fine contends that in an increasingly urban, impersonal, corporate
world, people have a psychological need to express their anxiety and
lack of control by telling these urban legends.
Some of the legends have a grain of truth - people have actually
found mice in pop bottles. The vast majority are false. But their
truth or lack of it almost doesn't matter - at least not to the
spinner of the yarn.
''Whether or not there's truth behind it, it's told like a tall
tale,'' says Fine.
''My argument is that these stories start from modern urban
pressures. We no longer know or control who prepares our food or other
aspects of life. As a result of the anxiety of being at the mercy of
others, we make up these stories,'' says Fine.
Fine, 29, has taken his search for urban legends to his native New
York City, and to Boston, Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn. So far, he
sees no distinction between the urban legends of the East or Midwest.
The folklore of modern urban man is not fundamentally different from
ancient times, when Greeks and Romans invented myths and gods to
account for the unaccountable.
But why do otherwise sophisticated modern city-dwellers need to tell
While ancient man felt at the mercy of nature and the gods,
corporations appear to be the unfathomable force behind many urban
tall tales, says Fine.
''Typically, people believe that corporations are all-powerful, so
why should they be ethical? Why not believe that there are worms in
And new products that people don't understand give rise to urban
legends. ''It's like modern magic,'' says Fine. In that category, the
effervescent candy that was introduced a few years ago gave rise to
entirely false stories about people's stomachs being ruptured from
eating too much of the stuff.
Or when microwave ovens came out, Fine unearthed a false, but
widespread, story about a girl who had put her cat in an oven to dry -
only to find 15 seconds later that the cat had exploded.
Whether true or false, says Fine, urban legends also are told
because of their sheer entertainment value.
He adds that corporations are not always the bad guys in urban
legends. One very widespread, persistent, and completely untrue tale
claims that some kindly corporations will give free kidney dialysis if
presented with enough cigarette wrappers or flip-top beer tabs.
But do people actually believe these modern urban legends? In a way,
''Typically, people say to me that there may or may not be truth to
what they've heard about hamburgers or ovens or whatever,'' he says.
''They might not bet money on it, but they keep it stored in their
minds as a fact for consideration.''
End Adv PMs Wed June 20
a065 0537 16 Jun 79
COVINGTON, La. (AP) - Doctors who trained monkeys to dose themselves
with microwave radiation say worries that the microwaves can cause
cataracts or birth defects appear to be unfounded.
Neither problem was found in rhesus monkeys studied in a three-year
project at the Delta Primate Research Center near New Orleans, says
Dr. Robert McAfee.
McAfee, an adjunct professor in Tulane University's ophthalmology
department, said in a recent interview the experiment used a surplus
military radar set hooked up with an apple juice dispenser.
''At the suggestion of our psychology colleagues, we rewarded the
monkeys with apple juice each time they turned on a switch, which
simultaneously released one drop of apple juice and microwave
''Since the monkeys really go for apple juice, they kept pressing
the switch on and off, on and off. And the more apple juice they got,
the more radiation they got,'' he said.
After about 40 days, the monkeys' eyes were checked.
''Many researchers have claimed that microwave radiation causes
cataracts,'' he said. ''Our research indicates that is not true.''
The monkeys used in the study were well fed, never forced to do
anything, and allowed to live in family groups and raise babies.
''Veterinarians at the Primate Center can attest to the fact that
our monkeys produced many baby monkeys in the course of the three
years of study, and there were no birth defects,'' said Dr. Robert
Gordon, another member of the research team.
Gordon is an associate professor of ophthalmology at Tulane Medical
He and McAfee said harmful effects found in other studies might be
due to anesthetics used on the animals.
''Some researchers try to force the monkeys,'' said McAfee. ''Well,
when you try to force a monkey against his will, he will usually
become enraged and will fight back. So the only way you can continue
with your experiment is to anesthetize the monkey. We belive that it
is the combination of anesthesia and microwave radiation that causes
n020 0836 17 Jun 79
NYT NEW YORK: the consumers?''
Robert E. (Ted) Turner 3d - who won the America's Cup in 1977, grew
a mustache to more resemble Rhett Butler and chews Red Man tobacco -
owns Turner Communications, which includes an Atlanta television
station now seen nationwide in five million homes. He also owns the
Atlanta Braves and the Atlanta Hawks. Turner is generally credited
with inventing the concepts that made possible cable television as we
know it, and is probably the only sports executive in America who is
outspokenly opposed to government regulation of cable.
Turner inherited an outdoor advertising business that was $6 million
in debt when his father committed suicide in 1963. By 1970, he had a
communications empire that included a local television station,
Atlanta's Channel 17, but Turner wanted a wider audience. He bought
what is called ''transponder time,'' or the right to use a satellite
22,300 miles above the equator that is used to relay television
signals. Then he built an earth station and received FCC permission
to trasmit the Channel 17 signal nationwide. Channel 17 became what
is known as a ''superstation,'' and a corporation called Southern
Satellite was created to be the ''common carrier'' or distributor of
Channel 17's programming.
At the moment, Channel 17 is seen in 5,182,000 homes in 46 states.
In 1977, its first year on the satellite, Channel 17 grew at the rate
of 50,000 homes a month. In 1978, the growth rate was over 125,000
homes a month. In 1979, in April alone, 300,000 homes were added.
When the FCC ruled that station owners could not also be
distributors, Turner divested himself of Southern Satellite, which is
now owned by Edward Taylor, and Turner no longer shares in its
substantial, but federally regulated, profits. But, Channel 17 now
sells national advertising based on its new audience and has opened a
sales office in New York.
There are now several other superstations, including stations in
Chicago, Boston and San Francisco, and WOR in New York. WGN in
Chicago is the second-largest superstation with a circulation around
Common carriers - like Eastern Microwave for WOR and United Video
for WGN - distribute signals to any cable operator in the United
States for a fee. The local cable operator must also pay a copyright
fee to the tribunal in Washington that distributes the money to the
program originators - Norman Lear, for example, for episodes of ''All
in the Family'' or the National League for Mets games - but those
originators are not asked for re-transmission permission.
By contrast, a corporation like Madison Square Garden sells Knick
and Ranger home games directly to cable operators around the country.
Madison Square Garden Cablevision earns a penny for every four homes
receiving its package, or $3 million a year.
Now, since the FCC has designated WOR as a superstation, Channel 9
games can also be seen nationwide. Since Madison Square Garden
negotiated its local television package when WOR was a local station,
it receives only ''minuscule profits'' for the games on the
superstation, according to Joseph Cohen, a vice president. ''I
suggest there is an inequity,'' he said.
The superstation concept has quite a different impact in small towns
and rural communities. ''You're looking at a vastly different thing
in Billings, Mont.,'' McGuirk said. ''In New York, you had a lot of
channels already. Places like Billings are why the FCC is loath to
cut out superstations.''
To serve those isolated viewers, the F.C.C. requires a local cable
system to carry all the available stations in his market, all three
networks, two or three independent stations and one public
broadcasting system. Anything not available in the community must be
imported by the cable system.
n021 0843 17 Jun 79
NYT NEW YORK: cable system.
To investigate the existing station owners' charge that the widening
fare cut into their audience, Young & Rubicam conducted studies on
whether new channels had negative impact on existing channels. ''Our
research shows it doesn't,'' Donnolly said.
Donnolly has not done comparable studies relating to sports, but
said the complaints of sports executives sounded familiar. ''Their
response is based on the old argument which turned out not to be
true,'' he said. ''They also have no supporting evidence. It has not
had an appreciable negative impact, and it seems to have enlarged the
audience and gotten nonsports fans involved. I can't prove that, but
I can't prove the opposite either.''
Like Donnolly, the sports programmers at CBS - the network that
televises the NBA - see no measurable erosion from cable. ''The
effect so far has been nothing,'' said Kevin O'Malley. ''Our business
has not really changed. In terms of what might happen, there are so
many entanglements, nobody can really predict the effect. There
you're in the area of pure opinion. Does it hurt our Sunday afternoon
game to have games on all week? It probably does, but it's not really
As a rule, NBA teams, to protect their live game, do not televise
home games on regular stations. Turner broke away from the pack by
televising 10 Hawk home games in each of the last two years. During
that period, Hawk attendance has gone up.
Under the present system of payment, Channels I and F are fairly
low-budget additions for Teleprompter. Channel F is a superstation
from Boston distributed by Eastern Microwave. Channel I is a
combination of a Philadelphia station picked up free off the air, and
the Atlanta superstation. All this imported programming, much of it
sports, costs Teleprompter approximately $100,000 a year, most of
which goes to the distributors.
For the fan, the health of the sports leagues and the health of the
cable industry are intertwined, and his interest will probably be
served by a compromise solution.
David Klatell, founding director of the Institute in Broadcast
Sports at Boston University, predicts that the new communication laws
will effect just such a compromise between the cable operators and
the sports executives. Games will continue to be televised nationwide
without the permission of leagues and teams, Klatell believes, but
compensation will be more substantial and direct. In Klatell's
scenario, copyright fees will not go to a central tribunal for
distribution; rather, they will be paid directly to superstations
like WOR and distributed to programmers like Madison Square Garden.
Klatell also foresees a time when the country will be divided into
regions, and, for example, Turner will have a geographically-limited
monopoly in the Southeast.
a034 0145 19 Jun 79
Eds: Prenoon lead expected
SURRY COURTHOUSE, Va. (AP) - Two Virginia Electric & Power Co.
employees who say they damaged fuel elements worth $30 million at a
nuclear power plant said today they would surrender to authorities.
William E. Kuykendall of Newport News told The Associated Press that
he and James A. Merrill Jr. of Hampton would turn themselves over to
the Surry County Sheriff's Department today to face charges.
Warrants were issued Monday for the two, who say they poured caustic
sodium hydroxide on the new elements to draw attention to security
and safety procedures at Vepco's Surry plant.
If convicted, each faces a maximum 31 years in prison on state
charges of intentionally causing damage to a facility used to furnish
electricity to the public, statutory burglary and entering a building
with intent to damage its contents.
''I think it would behoove us now to find an attorney and get ready
to fight that fight,'' Kuykendall said. He said the two remained free
''by pre-arrangement with the investigator who handled the case for
The company issued a statement saying Kuykendall and Merrill were
''indefinitely suspended'' from their jobs. Gentry Bell, Vepco's
senior security investigator, swore out the warrants Monday charging
the two reactor operator trainees in the April 27 incident.
The utility estimated the damage to the 62 rods at about $1 million,
but said most of the loss was covered by insurance.
Kuykendall said he and Merrill wanted to ''shock management out of
the belief that they were invulnerable to the problems possible to all
But an unidentified FBI spokesman quoted in the Newport News Times
Herald said he believed Kuykendall and Merrill were disgruntled
''I don't think they were terrorists, but neither were they warriors
trying to keep you and me safe from nuclear proliferation,'' he said.
''I wanted to point out that plant is a hazard, first and
foremost,'' Kuykendall said. ''As far as security goes, I feel the
efforts are mis-aimed. Millions of consumer dollars are spent on
microwave systems, sophisticated entry systems, high-powered weapons,
gas launchers, prison guard towers - and what purpose does it
n132 2020 19 Jun 79
By ROBERT METZ
c. 1979 N.Y. Times News Service
NEW YORK - The General Instrument Corp., a high-technology company,
has long been a major factor in gambling equipment, but the
speculators who have sent casino stocks to extraordinarily high
levels do not seem to care.
Perhaps this is all to the good in that many seasoned Wall Street
stock-market analysts are concerned about excessive prices for casino
issues. Nevertheless, some believe that General Instrument is cheap
at the current price of nine times the $4.75 a share (fully diluted)
the company is expected to earn in the current fiscal year.
Tuesday, the shares gained 1 3/8 to 44 1/2 on a 150,000-share turnover on
the New York Stock Exchange as management said at a luncheon of the
New York Society of Security Analysts that earnings for the first
fiscal quarter to May 27 were up 45 percent from a year earlier.
Otis Bradley, who follows high-technology companies for Alex. Brown
& Sons, wrote a long report on General Instrument last month
suggesting that the company was a turnaround situation and
recommending the stock for aggressive growth accounts.
If the company proves to be a comer, this would be quite a change.
General Instrument's performance through the 1960's and into the
1970's was poor ''to say the least,'' Bradley says. Progress was
''erratic'' and profit margins low, he adds, with return on equity
By contrast, in Bradley's view, General Instrument is well managed
today, with a strong balance sheet and a reinstituted cash dividend
that he believes will grow ''consistehntly and significantly'' over
the next several years.
But what has caught the eye of a few speculators is the company's
participation in as much as two-thirds of the $18 billion legal
gambling handle this year. General Instrument gets a percentage of
the handle as a provider of computing systems that process the bets,
calculate odds and cash winning tickets in parimutuel, offtrack and
state lottery systems nationwide.
Next October, Bradley notes, the company plans to open a
closed-circuit microwave racing theater in New Haven called
''Teletrack'' where New York State horse races are to be televised
onto a 24-by-32-foot screen.
Among other product lines, General Instrument's cable television
equipment should account for close to 20 percent of its worldwide
sales and arnings this year. General Instrument is also a world
leader in a number of other areas, including several semiconductor
For these and other reasons, Bradley believes the stock is
undervalued both fundamentally and in relation to other gambling,
cable television and high-technology stocks.
a502 1935 23 Jun 79
BC-Footprints in Time, adv 08-6 takes,450-2450
AGENCIES AND RADIO OUT
For release Sun July 8
From AP Newsfeatures
APN PRINT SUBSCRIBERS HAVE BEEN MAILED ILLUSTRATIONS
EDITOR'S NOTE - For the generation that witnessed it, the moment 10
years ago when an American astronaut stepped on the moon will long
remain in memory. In a decade of social stress and much violence, the
lunar flight was an unalloyed triumph. Here two reporters who covered
the climactic story recreate its drama, revisit its heroes, and assay
its significance then and now.
By JOHN BARBOUR
Associated Press Writers
Ten years ago. Only 10.
We watched the flickering images from the moon, saw that tentative
foot reach for the dusty surface. Clumsy figures in plasticized white
armor, slowly going through the practiced ritual, planting a flag
wired to appear as if caught in a breeze where no breezes blow.
Man landed and walked on the moon that day, Sunday, July 20, 1969.
The first hesitant words after a boulder-dodging setdown:
''Houston. (pause) Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed.''
Ten years ago. Only 10.
More than 500 million people watched on television around the globe,
and millions more heard the climax of that $20 billion race to the
moon which, it turned out, wasn't a race at all.
For more than 200 million Americans, it was a special moment after
almost a decade littered with the char of violence and disappointment.
The president who initiated the moon program, murdered. His brother,
a candidate for president, murdered. An unending, divisive war in the
jungles of Vietnam. Burning cities, testimony to the frustration of
blacks at home; their leader, Martin Luther King Jr., murdered.
For a few days at least, Apollo 11 erased all that stress and
turmoil. Americans had something to brag about.
But after that initial glow, after that startling dramatization that
man was not bound, as apples are, to fall to the ground, what would
this small step, this giant leap, mean? Ten years have not given the
answer. They have only converted the technology that reached the moon
into ways to brighten and comfort modern life.
Today the earth is served by weather satellites. Telephone calls and
television pictures flash back and forth from Earth to space to
Earth. The president of the United States is wired in to almost every
part of the world, via space. The nation is guarded against atomic
attack by spy satellites. Satellites measure the health of crops on
earth and stare out at distant galaxies. They prospect and map the
Earth, and keep a keen, unblinking eye on the sun.
Yet the ultimate promises remain unfulfilled, still within the reach
of imagination, still beyond the reach of national purpose.
There is talk of someday orbiting a satellite as large as the island
of Manhattan to capture the sun's energy and beam it back to earth by
microwave, of colonies in space doing work that cannot be done on
There are plans to use the prime tools of space - weightlessness and
vacuum - to create new metals, new vaccines. There are dreams of some
day spreading the human seed to other planets.
If all that comes to pass, then perhaps history will list the moon
landing with the milestones of human progress, even with those silent,
unrecorded moments when the first wheel turned, the first kindled
fire came to life, the first tool was fashioned.
a506 2010 23 Jun 79
BC-Footprints in Time, adv 08-4th add,420
AGENCIES AND RADIO OUT
For release Sun July 8
UNDATED: from Genesis.
''In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth . . . And
God saw that it was good.''
Borman, his voice full of emotion, added, ''And from the crew of
Apollo 8, we close with good night, good luck, a Merry Christmas, and
God bless all of you, all of you on the good Earth.''
The emotional impact of that Christmas Eve message carried the
around world. John Dos Passos wrote later: ''Genesis means beginning.
It is not often that a great moment in history finds the right words
to express it. This time it did.''
Archibald MacLeish wrote: ''. . . the Earth was no longer the world
but a small, wet, spinning planet in the solar system of a minor star
off at the edge of an inconsiderable galaxy in the immeasurable
distances of space . . .''
But inspiration wears away. Human attention is fickle. People go
back to worrying about the weeds in their backyard. After Apollo 17,
the moon became a distant place again and the space saga began to
Like Armstrong, Chris Kraft takes it in stride. But he wonders that
the lessons of Apollo seem to be forgotten, too.
''The problems that we face in the world today are solvable,'' he
says. ''By commitment, by hard work, by people who are willing to
sacrifice their own personal desires and their own feelings . . . We
need an inspirational event every so often to prove to the average guy
that such things are worthwhile and worth making a commitment to.''
Apollo, he says, was the last of those commitments.
In the 10 years since Apollo 11, unmanned spacecraft have brought us
pictures of Venus and Mars and Mercury, of Jupiter and its moons, the
solar system in our living rooms.
And space historians have felt the need to justify the space program
by tallying the technological benefits, from telemetered patients in
hospital intensive care to computers that fit into wallets or run
microwave ovens, even tiny switches to operate mechanical hearts - all
of these advance hurried along by Apollo dollars. One estimates that
the American public realized better than a third of its Apollo
investment in devices that might not have been.
The main characters are older, too. Boy-faced John Glenn now looks
like the U.S. senator he is. Chris Kraft favors a knotted-up left
hand. Armstrong rubs a finger torn off by a nail on his farm and sewn
back on. He can hold a golf club again. ''I can't type or play the
piano, but then I couldn't type or play the piano before the accident
n999 2156 28 Jun 79
. . .
r k ryrczczyv
Katherine Hatch, who writes for the Chicago Sun-Times from Mexico,
also has reported on the Nicaraguan crisis, including interviews with
Nicaraguan strongman Anastasio Somoza. The following is her analysis
of the current situation in Nicaragua.
Context: a commentary on current affairs.
By Katherine Hatch
(c) 1979 Chicago Sun-Times
The bloody civil war in Nicaragua has turned many of that nation's
law-abiding citizens into criminals and transformed normally cautious
people into revolutionaries. To a country accustomed to the blows of
nature and four decades of dictatorship, this may be the cruelest
blow of all: the criminalization of its people by events they cannot
Ordinary citizens who cared nothing for politics are turning
weapons kept for self-defense on their own government troops.
Housewives are looting stores where once they patiently stood in
line. Schoolchildren assemble barricades in neighborhood streets to
stop National Guard tanks.
It is not for fun nor even with a great sense of hatred that these
acts are being carried out. These are middle-class and poorer
Nicaraguans who are scared and very hungry. Upper- class families
have fled to Miami condominiums or are part of the government, part
of the problem.
Looters ransacking markets are not looking for color television
sets and microwave ovens. They are looking for food.
It is economics, not a hatred of dictators, that sends Nicaraguans
into the streets. Citizens who could live with a dictatorship cannot
live when prices rise by 50 per cent, as they did from 1973 to 1976.
Significantly, it was during these years that the Sandinistas made a
bid for popular urban support. Previously, the opposition guerrilla
organization, formed in 1961, concentrated its activities in the
jungles and countryside, finding support among the peasants and
occasionally ambushing a National Guard patrol sent to destroy them.
Most of industrial Nicaragua is owned or controlled by the Somoza
family. A housewife buying milk, a farmer buying fertilizer, a
businessman buying computer supplies-all contribute to the Somoza
wealth. Agriculturally, Nicaraguans are dependent on coffee, cotton
and sugar. When prices are high, they enjoy prosperity, and
prosperous people usually do not engage in revolution. But when world
market prices are down for these crops and times are hard, people
In 1972, an earthquake levelled the center of Managua, the capital.
It had been destroyed before, in 1931, and was rebuilt afterward. But
in 1972, Somoza decided to reconstruct the city on new land owned by
himself and friends.
Millions of dollars in aid poured in. The U.S. Air Force sent
temporary housing for quake victims to use until their new dwellings
were ready. Thousands still live in those temporary units. The money
is long gone.
While reconstruction created a mini-boom, the economic lift did not
last. By 1975, Nicaragua's growth rate was down to 2.9 per cent and
inflation was hurling prices far beyond the reach of wages.
n999 0615 01 Jul 79
. . .
y JEREMIAH O'LEARY
c. 1979 Washington Star
WASHINGTON - Climaxing negotiations that took longer than the first
SALT treaty, the United States and the Soviet Union have signed an
agreement permitting this country to begin construction of a new
embassy in Moscow and allowing the Russians to occupy their 12.5 acre
embassy complex here.
The contract, announced Saturday by the State Department, will
enable Soviet Embassy personnel here to move into their nearly
completed enclave by.u hlocated at about the highest spot
in Washingtonon land where Mt. Alto Veterans Hospital once stood at
Wisconsin Avenue and Tunlaw Road N.W.
The way also was cleared for contractors to start work on the new
structure for the American diplomatic colony in Moscow on 12.6 acres
next door to the present U.S. Mission.
Since the Mt. Alto complex will have plenty of parking room for
Soviet diplomats' automobiles, the Russians presumably will be able
to relinquish their unofficial lead in collecting parking tickets.
For the United Statees, the new construction in Moscow presumably
will provide a structure that will be safe from both the microwave
radiation that has been beamed at the present edifice and from the 40
or more listening devices found embedded in the building walls and
even inside the eagle on the Great Seal of the republic.
The Russians got their complex planned and constructed first, but
have been barred from moving in. The United States refused to grant
occupancy permits until it was assured that Moscow would not find a
way to block the slower-moving American process of construction plans
and contract letting.
State Department spokesperson Susan Pittman said the contract for
the new U.S. Embassy was signed here by Assistant Secretary of State
William L. Slayton and by Viktor A. 0rasolov and Stanislav P.
Polyakov for the Soviet Union. The two Russians are executives of the
Soviet contracting firm Svsi, which is part of the Ministry of
The price tag for the U.S. structure is $58.4 million. Pittman said
work will begin in early October and the new building should be ready
for occupancy late in 1983.
The contract signing followed nearly seven years of negotiations
since agreement was reached in principle between Moscow and
Washington that each country could build new embassy complexes in the
The Soviet complex here consists of an eight-story chancery, an
administration building, a nine-story apartment house capable of
housing 1,000 people, a school for the children of Russian diplomats,
a hospital, swimming pool and a gymnasium. Their cost is estimated at
about $70 million.
The American complex will consist of a chancery, 10 houses, 124
apartments, a school, a commissary, recreational facilities and
quarters for the Marine Corps guards.
Under the original agreement, the American and Russian complexes
were to have been built and opened simultaneously but it didn't work
out that way. The Soviets used American architects and builders while
the United States had to employ American architects and Soviet
builders. U.S. architect Carl Warnecke said the Russians did
everything right, completing their final plans before the United
States was ready with preliminary studies.
Both sides are said to be taking extraordinary measures to render
certain areas of the new embassies secure from intelligence gathering
or electronic eavesdropping.
n024 1209 01 Jul 79
BC-RADIATION II 3takes
(Second in a series on the hazards of low-level radiation)
By WALTER SULLIVAN
c.1979 N.Y. Times News Service
NEW YORK - The exposure of perhaps two million Pennsylvanians to
excess radiation from the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear
plant has brought to a climax a prolonged and intense debate that
began more than 20 years ago.
This debate concerns the effects on human populations of low levels
of radiation. Originally, it focused on whether there is a
''threshold'' level of exposure - a level below which there is no
effect at all. No evidence of such a threshold has been found,
however, and many specialists now doubt that one exists.
In recent weeks a new phase of the controversy has moved to the
forefront and has led to a sharp division in a committee of the
National Academy of Sciences that is seeking to estimate low-level
radiation effects, particularly with regard to cancer.
The dispute centers on whether the effects are ''linear'' - that is,
whether they decrease at uniform rates as dosage decreases. This was
the assumption of the majority of committee members when they drafted
their recent report. Now, however, a majority of the members believe
that for the most common form of radiation exposure, the effect at
low doses decreases more rapidly than in the linear mode.
In a linear situation a tenfold reduction of exposure should lead to
a tenfold decrease in the incidence of cancer. Instead, some
specialists say, the drop in cancer incidence at low dose rates may
be greater than that. Low-level exposures to the type of radiation
associated with 1/8Z Mile Island would therefore be less hazardous
than previously believed.
A dissent along these lines was appended to the draft of the academy
committee's report, a summary of which was made public on May 2. Five
of the 18 committee members subscribed to this dissent. Since then,
however, the number of dissenters has reportedly grown to a majority,
and the report is being revised in an effort to achieve a consensus.
The type of radiation involved in the dispute is known as low LET,
for linear energy transfer, radiation. This category includes X-rays
and gamma rays - at the shortest wavelength end of the spectrum that
includes visible light - and beta rays. The latter are electrons
emitted by such radioactive substances as carbon 14.
The far more damaging high LET radiation consists of heavier
particles, such as protons, neutrons and alpha particles. Those
exposed to high LET radiation include uranium miners and
The effect of these heavier particles on molecules susceptible to
genetic defects or to the genesis of cancer has been likened to a
bulldozer tearing through a field of sprouting corn. The effect of
low LET radiation is more like that of rabbits, many of which would
have to step on a corn sprout before it is damaged.
According to the preliminary federal report on the health effects of
Three Mile Island, all of the radioactive material that escaped the
plant was of the low LET variety. Most of it was xenon 133, a
radioactive form that decays quickly, but there were also traces of
The government's report on Three Mile Island, prepared by
specialists from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental
Protection Agency and the Department of Health, Education and
Welfare, estimated exposure of the population within a radius of 50
miles by using readings from a network of instruments within 15 miles
of the site.
Assuming that any added radiation exposure, no matter how small,
leads to at least a slight increase in cancer risk, the report
suggests that, in addition to 325,000 cancer deaths that would be
expected in a population of two million, one fatality and one
nonfatal case might occur as a result of the accident. If the effect
is weaker, as suspected by dissenting members of the academy
committee, the incidence could be less than one. In any case,
however, there is no known way to demonstrate how a particular cancer
The academy report, as yet unpublished, describes the other forms of
ionizing radiation to which Americans are exposed and sums up the
present state of knowledge concerning the effects of low-level
exposure. Both high LET and low LET forms of radiation are ionizing.
That is, with damaging energy they knock loose electrons within
Nonionizing radiation, as from ultraviolet light, microwave ovens
and very high-powered radars, can be damaging in other ways but does
not figure in the nuclear energy debate.
a563 2044 01 Jul 79
BC-Made in Japan, Adv 08-1st add,430
For release Sun July 8
TOKYO: stay ahead.''
The Ministry of International Trade and Industry has mapped out a
blueprint for the 1980s calling for a complete restructuring of
Japanese industry. It says Japan must stop exporting the products of
labor and start the exporting of products of knowledge.
MITI forecasts that the ''core'' of Japanese exports in the 1980s
will be ''knowledge-intensive and high value-added'' products like
computers, other electronic goods based on integrated circuits,
industrial plants and fine chemicals.
This is not to say that the Japanese will give up on automobiles,
televisions, steel and shipbuilding, at least for the foreseeable
future, U.S. officials here said.
But the fastest-growing field is likely to be computers, where the
government began two years ago giving direct subsidies to Japanese
computer makers and funding research in the field.
Already, the six major computer makers produce machines judged equal
to those of U.S. companies that were once far ahead. Japanese
companies have taken over half the domestic computer market, 20 to 30
percent of the European market, and have even sold computers to the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the United States.
Computers exports are growing at 30 percent a year, and are forecast
to continue doing so through 1985.
Japan also is making rapid progress in the development of integrated
circuits - ''chips'' - for other electronic products. They have
already shown their ability to apply rapidly and efficiently new
technology to mass production, and are now concentrating on many new
consumer-oriented, high-technology items like video-tape recorders,
microwave ovens, electromagnetic stoves, facsimile transmission and
One of the most lucrative and fast growing new fields for the
Japanese has been building entire industrial plants for export, on a
''turn-key'' basis. That is, the whole steel mill or processing plant
is built here and shipped to another country, set up and the key
turned over to the new owners, who start it up and begin producing.
Plant exports have leaped from $965 million worth in 1970 to $4.8
billion in 1975 and $9.8 billion in fiscal 1978.
A recent study by the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo on Japan's exports in
the 1980s says that MITI's restructuring plan has so far worked well,
and American businessmen can expect to face increasing competition in
the 1980s in many industrial fields, including those mentioned as
well as nuclear power plants, railway rolling stock and advanced
railway systems, pollution control and many others.
Japanese dominance of the export market is not going to disappear, a
U.S. official commented. ''The products will change, but Japan will
still be on top,'' he said.
End Adv Sun July 8
n088 1609 02 Jul 79
Bernstein - WASHINGTON X X X plants.
ARCO figures the cost of producing shale oil for refining to be in
the $20 to $25 a barrel range. But there is the danger of overruns.
''There's a severe risk that the cost will run twice that amount,''
said Hiram E. Bond, ARCO senior vice president. ''We have seen other
first-of-a-kind projects run 100 percent over sophisticated cost
Even if the oil industry gets the $3 tax credit, Bond said, ''you
won't see a thundering herd taking advantage of it. There is a
reasonably good chance that one or two commercial-scale plants might
get construction started within 3 or 4 years. You must do
environmental impact analysis and get some 85 permits from different
state and federal agencies. We have been working on permits for 6 or
7 years already.''
Bond, expressing a view widely shared by industry executives,
declared that regulatory reform would have to be a prerequisite to
commercial shale oil development.
An official of Union Oil Co. said the firm is not ready yet to
commit itself to a full 50,000 barrel a day project, partly for
technological reasons but also because it's encountering long delays
in obtaining the necessary permits.
The above-ground retorting operation that both ARCO and Union
envision requires large amounts of water from the Colorado River
system to keep the spent shale moist and to vegatate and reclaim the
Since every barrel of shale oil generates about 1.3 tons of waste
material, the disposal problems are enormous. A 1 million barrel a
day oil shale industry would pile up about 475 million tons of waste
Underground retorting of the type planned by Occidental would
minimize the waste problem. The firm's modified ''in situ'' method
also requires less water, and much of the water it uses will come
from underground sources within the mine rather than from the
Two other major oil firms, Gulf and Standard Oil of Indiana, are
participating in a joint shale venture using some of Occidental's
licensed methods for ''in situ'' retorting. The ventur, operated by
Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., is slated for commercial production after
completing a test phase, perhaps in 1981.
To improve shale mining technology, the energy Department this year
has earmarked $43.3 million on research and development. Some of the
processes being examined would utilize microwaves to heat the shale
in hopes of producing higher-quality oil. Other methods burn the
shale under near-vacuum conditions, which reduce the amount of fuel
needed for heating and also increase oil yields.
Some of the underground mining systems are ''very promising,'' said
Jerry Ramsey, an oil shale expert at the Energy Department. Oil
yields as high as 70 percent of the Kerogen in the shale have been
obtained. By contrast, conventional oil production rarely has yields
exceeding 30 percent.
To exploit shale oil's full potential will require clearing major
hurdles. Yet the nation's huge reserves would support a massive
production effort for decades once the industry gets under way.
Occidental's Hammer anticipates that shale oil development will
gather momentum once the first demonstration plant begins operating.
''There will be any number of technological advances resulting from
the ingenuity of American engineers,'' he said. ''But we ought to
move ahead now with 'in situ' extraction.''
With his penchant for new ventures, Hammer may yet demonstrate that
a commercial-sized shale plant can produce fuel at a profit without
adverse environmental effects.
If Hammer is right - and some experts say he is on target - the
profitable development of oil shale could stave off Energy Secretary
james Schlesinger's oft-predicted world oil shortage. Over time it
could reduce dependence on Arab oil.
It could reverse the decline of America's oil reserves.
Indeed, it could reshape the entire politics and economics of the
Western industrial world.
AR END BERNSTEIN
n071 1554 09 Jul 79
By PHILLIP H. WIGGINS
c. 1979 N.Y. Times News Service
NEW YORK - In the third-busiest trading day of this year, the stock
market Monday continued the strong rally it began last Friday, as the
Dow Jones industrial average climbed 6.83 points to 852.99 on a
turnover of 42.46 million shares.
As President Carter continued his energy summit meeting Monday at
Camp David, Md., analysts in two other camps - those who believed a
downward-revised economic forecast expected to be released later this
week would hurt stock prices and those who believed Friday's rally
would continue - had to wait patiently for the market to tell its own
It did and with a flourish. Advances topped declines by more than 2
to 1. As on Friday, the Dow was a steady winner. Ahead 4.27 at 1
p.m., the key index gained momentum right up to the close of trading.
The New York Stock Exchange index once again rose to a record for
the year, adding 0.5 to close at 59.32.
Oil stocks once again benefited from positive news. The Carter
administration's report that Saudi oil production would be increased
substantially in the third quarter generated interest is such issues
as Occidental Petroleum, Texaco, Union Oil, Exxon, Commonwealth Oil,
Phillips Petroleum, Atlantic Richfield, California Standard and Gulf.
The CIT Financial Corp., the Big Board's most active stock on a
volume of 523,500 shares, dropped 1 1/2 to 53 1/2. The nation's largest
independent finance company is holding preliminary discussions with
the RCA Corp. over a possible merger.
The NLT Corp., which has been rumored to be a takeover target of the
Ashland Oil Co., rose 2 1/8 to 35 1/2.
The Studebaker-Worthington Corp., which last traded on Thursday when
it rose 11 1/4 to 39, was idle again Monday as the company's board of
directors met to consider an offer by a ''major corporation'' to
acquire some or all of its shares.
Combustion Engineering was up 2 3/4 to 52 1/8. A spokesman for Combusition
said the company has had ''good reviews from analysts and the media
on our position in the energy field including the research and
development of synthetic fuels, but we know of nothing positive to
explain today's sharp advance.''
The Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corp. rose 3 to 24, but Dennis J.
Carney, chairman and president, said, ''We know of no reason for the
recent activity'' in the company's stock.
On the American Stock Exchange advances outnumbered declines as the
Amex market value index rose to an a record for the 26th time this
year, adding 1.24 to 201.31. Volume also expanded sharply to 5.13
million shares from 2.83 million shares last Friday.
The Champion Home Builders Co., a Detroit-based producer of mobil
homes, was the most active Amex issue trading 462,900 shares.
The Dynalectron Corp. rose 2 1/4 to 14 and was the second most active
Amex issue on a volume of 301,200 shares. The company has several
proprietary processes for the development of synthetic fuels, which
analysts indicated, apparently served as a buoy.
Alterman Foods Inc. rose 1 5/8 to 24. The company has reached an
agreement in principle to sell its assets to the Del-Haize company of
Belgium for $25.43 a share.
In over-the-counter trading, the NASDAQ composite index rose 0.51 to
The Microwave Semiconductor Corp. gained 1 to 11 7/8 after rising 2 1/4 on
Friday. Siemens A.G. of West Germany has agreed to acquire the
Somerset, N.J., concern.
n558 0412 11 Jul 79
EDITORS: The following story is part of the package of articles
about the Apollo moon landing, the 10th anniversary of which will be
celebrated July 20. The main bulk of the package was sent July 5. It
is embargoed for use until Sunday, July 15.
By Betty Freudenheim
(c) 1979 Chicago Sun-Times
PRINCETON, N.J.-The commuters pass each other on their pedal planes
en route to the commuter sphere which will speed them to their
factory jobs in outer space. The rooftops of their homes, clustered
in small villages, surrounded by trees, lakes and rolling hills, are
barely visible-four miles overhead.
To the right and left, a panorama of constellations whisks by as
though the whole universe were filled with falling stars.
This pastoral scene is more science than science fiction. These are
just a few of the projections of Dr. Gerard K. O'Neill, Princeton
physics professor, author of ''The High Frontier'' and guru or many
would-be first inhabitants of outer space.
When Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin made their historic moon trip,
the imaginations of most Americans soared on space voyages to Mars,
Venus and beyond. But NASA budget slashes brought these dreams back
to earth in an abrupt re-entry pattern.
A few visionary scientists have spent the last 10 years exploring
space on paper, planning colonies there despite the scorn of their
colleagues and the lack of solid financial support.
Two months after Apollo 11, O'Neill began teaching Physics 103 to
Princeton freshmen. His course posed the question: ''Is a planetary
surface the right place for an expanding universe?'' The class soon
concluded that the answer was ''no'' because gravity on planets would
increase industrial costs, 14-day nights could bring on the
depression known to Scandinavians and also inhibit plant growth.
Neither the Moon nor Mars has atmosphere and Venus is too hot.
Lastly, the land area available on these planets would be inadequate
to solve the world's population problems since, at the present rate
of growth, it would be used up in 35 years.
However, colonies in outer space were a logical alternative. Of the
three possible geometric forms-the sphere, cylinder and
wheel-O'Neill's class chose the cylinder. The first model was
primitive, a paper and plastic tube held together with tape. It was
divided into six segments, three designed to admit sunlight,
alternated with three solid portions which would be lined with lunar
''earth.'' NASA scientists came up with two other proposals which
would be in the shape of a ''hatbox'' and a ''bicycle tire.''
In his book, now in paperback and translated into French, German
and Dutch, O'Neill tells of the first construction ''shacks'' which
he sees as studio-like apartments in converted space shuttles. But,
Dr. Richard Johnson of NASA's Ames, Calif., research center predicts
they will be similar to those used on the Alaska pipeline:
''temporary, quick and dirty.''
From these would evolve idyllic communities such as O'Neill's
Island Three with two revolving cylinders, one for human habitation
and recreation, the other for food production.
Johnson says the residents would be between 21 and 44 years old,
primarily workers on the solar energy station which would be sending
microwaves down to earth. Some would be involved in building other
One astronomer conceives of old fashioned brick houses being
promoted by space real estate developers. These could be made from
baked lunar soil, basalt or compr
essed lunar wastes. Johnson sees
reality approximating Habitat in Montreal, with staggered cubes for
each home, complete with terraced gardens on the neighbors' rooftop.
These family homes would be constructed from sheets of aluminum
shipped in by space truck delivery service from the moon mines.
Prefabricated kitchens and bathrooms would arrive with all the
appliances in place, including microwave ovens, of course.
Furnishing would also be of aluminum, upholstered in fiberglass
with some interior decorators envisioning nonfading stained
fiberglass drapes, glowing like medieval stained glass windows. The
bookcase problem would be solved by video screens which could project
every book in the Library of Congress.
The sun would always light the house plants from a constant
position, until evenings when the control mirrors moved and the light
was ''shut off.'' However, distant vistas of the universe would be
constantly changing as the cylinder made a revolution every two
Clothing would be light and airy ''to save transportation costs on
the shuttle coming up,'' explained O'Neill, who is trim with no
excess pounds to take into outer space. He plans to accommodate his
entire wardrobe in a moderate suitcase, ''but my wife will probably
want to bring more.''
He has placed the recreational areas near zero-gravity in the
center, which would permit unrestrained freedom of movement. In his
book, he speaks of three-dimensional soccer and soaring leaps off the
diving board. A honeymoon hotel there would provide opportunities for
sex not yet imagined by nuptial experimenters.
''But where are they going to get the toothpaste?'' Dr. Johnson
asked. O'Neill places this kind of production at the caps of the
His second cylinder would house the agriculture and animals. Crops
could grow abundantly year round with 24-hour-a-day sunshine from the
solar reflectors plus artificial rain. NASA experiments have shown
that plants grow well in moon soil. Natural food advocates would not
have to seek out health food stores because sprays are unnecessary
with sterilized soil and water.