perm filename ITN[206,LSP] blob sn#069291
filedate 1973-10-30 generic text, type T, neo UTF8
INTRODUCTION TO THE IMSSS TIME SHARING SYSTEM
FOR CS 206
INTRODUCTION FOR NEW USERS
------------ --- --- -----
The Institute's computer is running under the Tenex
Time-sharing System, which was built around the Dec PDP-10,
by Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. of Massachusetts. Before
Tenex, we ran on a Dec 10/50, Series 4 Monitor Timesharing
System, and we still have many of the Dec programs in active use.
You will be assigned an identifier, consisting of
user's name, password, and account number. You will use this
identifier each time you log into the system.
Whenever you are typing (almost), the rub out
key will delete the last character you typed.
In Lisp, <ctrl>-U will delete the whole line you
are typing and let you start the line over.
In the following descriptions of commands:
<cr> means "press the return key"
<sp> means "press the space bar"
<$> means "press the enter key"
(This key is sometimes called alt-mode).
<ctrl>-C means type C while holding down the control
How to log into the EXEC
--- -- --- ---- --- ----
The EXEC is the main supervisory program under which
we edit, program, and print.
Turn on the teletype by pushing the start key. Then
type a <ctrl>-C, and the tty will print the login message.
When the "@" sign appears type "LOGIN" or "LOG" <$>
it will respond with (USER) type your user name <$>
the response is (PASSWORD), type your secret password <$>
responding with (ACCOUNT #), type "206 <cr>"
It will look like this -
@ login (USER) 206ab (PASSWORD) (ACCOUNT #) 206
(Have you noticed the typing was suppressed on your password?
That is done to keep your files private.) A quickie way to
log in is to type:
@ "log <sp> 206ab <sp> ab <sp> 206 <cr>" which will appear as
@ "log 206ab 206".
How to log out
--- -- --- ---
Now that you can log into the system, let's talk
about logging out, before we go on to other things.
LOGOUT closes any file you may have open, and
clears your JOB from the system. An example of LOGOUT is:
@ K <cr>
kILLED JOB 3, USER 206ab, ACCT 1, TTY 10 AT 5/25/73 1447
USED 0:0:14 IN 3:47:59
Tenex System Commands
----- ------ --------
Log in please. You are talking to the main supervisory
program called the EXEC. Whenever it is ready for a command it
sends you an "@". You then have two broad choices: either request
information from the system or run some kind of user program. In
following section we have listed the Tenex commands you may need.
The full word form of the command is listed, with the shortest
allowable abbreviation underlined.
Signaling the System
--------- --- ------
<ctrl>-C You can
always get the attention of the system
by holding down the CTRL button and
typing "C" a couple of times.
Your program may be continued with
the "CONT" command as
if no halt had occurred, assuming you
have not altered your core image (by
running some other program, etc.) One
<ctrl>-C will return you to the system if
your program is waiting for input from the
tty, otherwise two <ctrl>-C commands are
necessary to halt a running program.
@ The @ typed after a <ctrl>-C indicates that
the system is ready for a new command. The
system will type an @ upon completion of a
; Typing a ";" causes the rest of a command
line to be considered a comment rather than
? A user can type a ? at any point where Tenex
- appears to expect a keyword or argument, and
it will respond with a list of allowable key-
words or arguments.
Will allow you to check your program to
see if it is progressing. This will not
stop your running program, tho it acts
as an interrupt character, which causes
a Runstat and Usestat to be typed out.
-- Tells you date and time of day.
-- Tells you how many pages are now being used.
-- Tells you who is logged into this device.
---- Used to determine the status of a job that
appears to have stopped running.
File Manipulation Commands
---- ------------ --------
APPEND <filename> <$>
--- Adds information in one or more source
files to the end of a destination file.
The source file remains unaffected.
--- Will continue a program interrupted by a
COPY <filename> <$>
--- Copies one file onto another. Type the
source fileneme first, and the destination
DELETE <filename> <cr>
--- Eliminates files. Multiple files can be
eliminated by separating the files with a
comma, space, or altmode. An * can be used
for universal file names or extensions, but
be careful!! You may undelete files with
undelete. To "really delete" all deleted
files, say "expunge".
--- Tells you information about your directory
of files. For examples of what you can do
see the sample session that was handed out.
--- Removes permanently deleted files from
K <cr> (CONFIRM) <cr>
--- Will begin program execution at the reentry
address, providing the program has been
placed in core first.
RENAME <$> Changes a file name.
TYPE <filename> <cr> Will type out the file specified.
UNDELETE <file name> <cr>
--- Restores a deleted file.
--- IMSSS command to load SOS, the editor.
See the INTRO you already have for the
AI computer for information on how to use
USING THE EDITOR
To enter the editor:
When the exec types an "@", type EDIT<cr>.
The editor will type "FILE =", and wait for
you to type a file name. After you type the
file name, press the <enter> key (sometimes
called <alt-mode>), if you are creatiing a new
file. If you are editing an old file, type a
carriage return after the file name.
To use the editor:
See INTRO (for the AI computer) which you were
given at the beginning of the quarter. The editor
is the same. (It is called SOS).
To leave the editor:
When the editor types an "*", type E<cr>.
To enter Lisp:
When the exec types an "@", type ILISP<cr>.
∨hen Lisp types ALLOC (Y OR N) ? type N or <cr>.
You are now talking to the top level of Lisp, which
is waiting for you to give it something to eval.
To read in a file with function definitions on it,
type (DSKIN FILNAM), where FILNAM is the name of
the file. If the filename has an extension,
e.g. FILNAM.EXT, type (DSKIN (FILNAM . EXT)).
It will type the names of the functions that it
finds in the file--if there are errors in the file
it may not find all of the functions.
When Lisp finds an error, it will type an error message.
Then instead of typing an "*", it will type "1:", and wait for you
to type something. This is the break package. There are many things
you can do here, described in the UCI Lisp manual. If you just want
to get back to the top level of Lisp, type two up arrows (↑↑),
followed by a <cr>. (Up arrow is <shift>-N). If you never want the
break package you can type (*RSET NIL) when you enter Lisp to turn
When you are in Lisp, you can print out readable copies of
function definitions with the function GRINDEF. For example, to list
the function UNION, type (GRINDEF UNION). When you turn in computer
homework, please include GRINDEF listings of all of your functions.
To leave Lisp type <ctrl>-C or (EXIT).
There is a UCI lisp manual on a shelf in teletype room 31. To
use UCI lisp, you also need a Lisp 1.6 manual. You can buy both of
these manuals in room 101 Polya.
Filenames consist of a name, an extension, and a version
number, written for, example, FILNAM.EXT;1. The name should never
be more than 6 characters, and the extension should be no more than
3 characters. The extension can be omitted entirely. When using
Lisp and the editor, there is no way to specify a version number.
They always use the most recent version. When using the editor,
just type FILNAM.EXT, or if there is no extension, just FILNAM. For
using Lisp see above. For exec commands, such as deleting and
copying, you can specify the version number.
Whenever you log off, please use the EXPUNGE command to
really get rid of deleted files. Even if you haven't deleted any
files, the editor may have deleted some old versions of your files
which you should EXPUNGE.
There are many more things you can do with the system. If you
have any questions, please ask me. I will be in room 11 in Ventura
as often as possible during the next couple of weeks--especially between
1:00 and 2:00 on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday.